Why Is The Catholic Bible Different
It is important to note that the Catholic Bible includes all 73 books of the old testament and new testament that are acknowledged by the Catholic Church, but the Christian Bible is a sacred book for Christians and does not include any of these writings. The canon law of the Catholic Church is followed by a Catholic Bible.
Under Roman Law New Religions Were Illegal
Under Roman law new religions were illegal. In its first few decades Christianity was seen as a sect within Judaism. Once it was determined that Christianity was a separate religion, it became illegal to identify as a Christian. So, for the first three centuries of what we now call the Christian Era, it was a crime to be Christian. Persecutions sprang up throughout various parts of the empire. Believers were tortured and sometimes martyred for their faith. In 303, Emperor Diocletian ordered the confiscation of Christian property and churches, and the burning of Scriptures. Believers and their Book had become so inseparable that the way to eliminate Christianity was to eliminate the Bible.
The Early History Of The Bible In English
Missionaries brought Christianity to what is now known as the UK long before the Norman invasion of 1066. But their Bibles were handwritten in Latin and accessible only to the educated. Bede, a monk and historian from Northumberland, first translated the Gospel of John into Old English in the 7th century.
The first complete Bible in English was produced in the 14th century by John Wycliffe, a master at Oxford University. This upset the authorities. In 1408 a new law banned anyone from translating or owning any part of the Bible in English without permission.
The invention of printing was a crucial turning point. William Tyndale was determined to produce a Bible in English but the restrictions in England forced him abroad. His New Testaments were printed in Germany and smuggled into England in bales of cloth. But he was arrested by the authorities and executed.
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Some Jews Included 12 To 15 Other Books As Part Of Scripture
Outside the Holy Land some Jews included twelve to fifteen other books as part of Scripture. The Septuagint, which was translated in Egypt, contains books that we now call the Apocrypha. Early Christians differed over whether these extra books should be considered Scripture or not. Those nearest Palestine tended to exclude them. Those closer to Rome tended to include them.During the sixteenth-century Reformation, Martin Luther spoke strongly against the Apocrypha. In reaction the Roman Catholic Church convened a council in Trent , where they declared the Apocrypha to be canonical. To this day Catholics and Protestants disagree on this issue. Catholics uphold the Apocrypha. Protestants believe that the Apocrypha is useful but not inspired.
Who Was King David
The first wave of scribes may, its been suggested, have started work during the reign of King David . Whether thats true or not, David is a monumental figure in the biblical story the slayer of Goliath, the conqueror of Jerusalem. David is also a hugely important figure in the quest to establish links between the Bible and historical fact, for he appears to be the earliest biblical figure to be confirmed by archaeology.
I killed king of the house of David. So boasts the Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone dating from 870750 BC and discovered in northern Israel in the 1990s. Like the Merneptah Stele before it, it documents a warlords victory over the Israelites . But it at least indicates that David was a historical figure.
The Tel Dan Stele also suggests that,no matter how capable their rulers, the people of Israel continued to be menaced by powerful, belligerent neighbours. And, in 586 BC, one of those neighbours, the Babylonians, would inflict on the Jews one of the most devastating defeats in their history: ransacking the sacred city of Jerusalem, butchering its residents, and dragging many more back to Babylonia.
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Who Decided What Belongs In The Canon
Theologians are careful to note that the church didnt develop the canon God did that by inspiring its writing and superintending each books preservation. The church recognized the canon by experience and mutual agreement.
Scriptures: 1 Timothy, 2 Corinthians, 2 Peter, Colossians 4:16, Daniel 9:2, Ephesians 2:20, Exodus 4, Luke 24:44
Who Chose What To Include In The Bible
I have a question about the bible we read today: I know that all of the word is inspired by God, but why do we read the bible that was decided by catholic priests, what and what was not important to include? There are various manuscripts that I believe “did not make the cut” , so why do we not read that extended version today? Some people answer, “well because it was too ridiculous to include” or”it did not make sense”… But it was inspired by God, was it not? And did he not say in Revelation that we are “neither to add nor take away” from the word of God. What is the entire word of God?
Is it what “they” said it was, with their political, religious and, their cultural influences playing a factor? I mean, those elements had to be included because it was all they knew at the time…right?
Feel free to answer what makes sense.
Thank You for reading, Alexander
Thanks so much for writing and asking this important question. The issue of what books should or should not be included in the Bible is one that comes up quite often. It has become even more prominent since Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code became an enormously popular book.
Although billed as a work of fiction, The Da Vinci Code contains a very real attack on historic Christianity. At the front of the book, Brown trumpets this bold claim:
All descriptions of artwork, architecture, documents, and secret rituals in this novel are accurate.
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Stories You Didnt Learn In Sunday School
Many of the New Testament texts we know today were used authoritatively in the second Century. However, different congregations preferred certain texts and included texts that arent found in the New Testament. Here are some:
The Gospel of Peter: A fragment of this text was found in Egypt in 1886. However, it contains the only narrative account of Jesus exit from his tomb. Peter claims that two giant angels descended on the tomb to escort the resurrected Jesus out. They were also suddenly enormous. The most bizarre thing about this story is that the three figures were accompanied by a floating cross, which could speak.
And they heard a voice in the heavens saying, Thou hast preached unto them that sleep.And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying, Thou hast preached to them that sleep.’
The Gospel of Mary: Combs claims that some Apocryphal texts reflect theological and doctrinal discussions in the early church. The Gospel of Mary, which was discovered in the late 19th Century, refers to Mary Magdalene as one of Jesuss followers and his favorite disciple. After Jesuss resurrection, he gives esoteric teachings and then shares them with Mary. Mary then tells his other disciples. Peter questions why they should listen. Levi replies:
If she was worthy of the Savior, then who would you be to make her go? The Savior surely knows her well. He loves her more than we do.
Iii The Scriptures And Nicea
Taking all of this into account, we can quickly see that the assertions in The Da Vinci Code are ridiculous. The character Teabing, the book’s historical expert, asserts that the gospels weren’t chosen until the fourth century – and then they were picked to advance a political agenda. Sandra Meisel summarizes the ludicrousness of this assertion by writing, “Christ wasn’t considered divine until the Council of Nicea voted him so in 325 at the behest of the emperor. Then Constantine-a lifelong sun worshipper-ordered all older scriptural texts destroyed, which is why no complete set of Gospels predates the fourth century. Christians somehow failed to notice the sudden and drastic change in their doctrine.”
Indeed, there was no council called to sort through a bunch of writings and accept some but dismiss others because they did or did not conform to some political agenda. Nothing could be further from the truth. At Nicea, the New Testament canon had been pretty well established for over a century. The church historian Eusebius lists the books as authentic in his Church History volume III, chapters 3 to 25.
I hope this has helped in understanding why the Bible holds the place of authority and reverence in the Christian church as it does. I plan on extending this discussion in another article, one looking at some of the other evidences for the inspiration of the Biblical texts. Until then, God bless.
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The Canon Of The New Testament
Jesus followers considered His own teachings to be authoritative. Near the end of the first century, Christians were citing Jesus words and calling them Scripture along with Old Testament verses . Furthermore, some of Jesus followers, such as the apostle Paul, understood themselves to be authoritative spokespersons for the truth.
Other Bible writers granted him this claim and included his letters among the Scriptures . There was debate concerning which apostles were true to Jesus own teachings, and which letters were written by them . If you want to know more about the considerations and arguments why certain books were or were not included in the canon, read this article.
Even though the four Gospels were widely considered authoritative, along with Acts, most of the Pauline epistles and several of the longer general epistles, the acceptability of some of the other books was debated till the fourth century. In 367 AD, Athanasius the bishop of Alexandria named the 27 books that are currently accepted by Christians, as the authoritative canon of Scripture. However, this was not just his personal opinion. He wrote down the consensus of a larger group of religious authorities. On various church councils, the list of New Testament books that were recognized as canonical, was officially noted down. Later on, Roman Catholic and Protestant church councils stated their respective decisions on the canon and on the status of the apocrypha.
Did Constantine Create The Bible
It is important to note that the Catholic Bible includes all 73 books of the old testament and new testament that are acknowledged by the Catholic Church, whereas the Christian Bible is a sacred book for Christians and does not include any of the 73 books. In accordance with catholic canon law, a Catholic Bible is produced.
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Why Were Books Removed From The Bible
Generally speaking, the word refers to publications that were not considered to be part of the canon. It is possible that these books were excluded from the canon for a variety of reasons. It is possible that the passages were only known to a small number of individuals, or that they were kept out because their substance did not fit well with the content of the other books of the Bible, until they were included.
Ii Recognizing What Is Inspired
Since we know what classifies as Scripture , we must now turn our attention to understanding how the church fathers identified documents that held such qualities. Since the Old Testament and the New Testament are separated by over 400 years and have different histories, their recognition as Scripture has different facets.
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Where Is The Original Bible
Bible #1. The oldest surviving full text of the New Testament is the beautifully written Codex Sinaiticus, which was discovered at the St Catherine monastery at the base of Mt Sinai in Egypt in the 1840s and 1850s. Dating from circa 325-360 CE, it is not known where it was scribed perhaps Rome or Egypt.
Canons Of Various Christian Traditions
Final dogmatic articulations of the canons were made at the Council of Trent of 1546 for Roman Catholicism, the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England, the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for Calvinism, and the Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 for the Eastern Orthodox. Other traditions, while also having closed canons, may not be able to point to an exact year in which their canons were complete. The following tables reflect the current state of various Christian canons.
The Early Church primarily used the Greek as its source for the Old Testament. Among Aramaic speakers, the Targum was also widely used. All of the major Christian traditions accept the books of the Hebrew protocanon in its entirety as divinely inspired and authoritative, in various ways and degrees.
Another set of books, largely written during the intertestamental period, are called the biblical apocrypha by Protestants, the deuterocanon by Catholics, and the deuterocanon or anagignoskomena by Orthodox. These are works recognized by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches as being part of scripture , but Protestants do not recognize them as divinely inspired. Some Protestant Biblesespecially the English King James Bible and the Lutheran Bibleinclude an “Apocrypha” section.
Additional books accepted by the Syriac Orthodox Church :
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The New Testament Canon
The early Christian church followed the practice of Jesus and regarded the Old Testament as authoritative . Along with the Old Testament, the church revered the words of Jesus with equal authority . It could not have been otherwise since Jesus was perceived not only as a prophet but also as the Messiah, the Son of God. Following the death and resurrection of Jesus, the apostles came to occupy a unique position in spreading and bearing witness to the words of Jesus. Indeed, Christ had said of them that because they had been with Him from the beginning they would be His witnesses . As the church grew, and the apostles became conscious of the prospect of their own deaths, the need arose for the words of Jesus to be recorded . None were keener to preserve and communicate authoritatively what had happened than the apostles who were witnesses of the salvation of God in Jesus Christ. Thus, the stage was set for the development of books that, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, would in time become the New Testament canon.
For about two decades after the Cross, the message of Jesus was proclaimed orally. Then, from the midfirst century on, Pauls letters began to appear. Somewhat later, the three synoptic Gospels and the book of Acts were written by the end of the first century, when John wrote the book of Revelation, all the books of the New Testament were completed. Throughout the New Testament, the focus is on what God had done in Christ .
Latter Day Saint Canons
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Pearl of Great Price contains five sections: “Selections from the Book of Moses“, “The Book of Abraham“, “Joseph SmithMatthew“, “Joseph SmithHistory“, and “The Articles of Faith“. The Book of Moses and Joseph SmithMatthew are portions of the Book of Genesis and the Gospel of Matthew from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, also known as the Inspired Version of the Bible.
The manuscripts of the unfinished Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible state that “the Song of Solomon is not inspired scripture”, but it is still printed in every version of the King James Bible published by the church. The LDS Church also has only officially canonized certain excerpts of the JST-LDS that appear in its Pearl of Great Price.
Other Latter Day Saint sects
Other Latter Day Saint denominations diverge from the LDS Church’s standard works. The Community of Christ, the second-largest Latter Day Saint denomination, has canonized the full Inspired Version of the Holy Scriptures, but does not prescribe a single translation of the Bible. The liturgy of the Community of Christ today is usually based on more recent translations of the Bible, such as the New Revised Standard Version .
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When Was The Bible First Written And By Whom
The Christian Bible has two sections, the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament is the original Hebrew Bible, the sacred scriptures of the Jewish faith, written at different times between about 1200 and 165 BC. The New Testament books were written by Christians in the first century AD.
Who Decided What Books The Hebrew Bible Would Contain
The canonization of the Hebrew Bible into its final 24 books was a process that lasted centuries, and was only completed well after the time of Josephus
The Hebrew Bible is a collection of 24 ancient Hebrew books considered holy by adherents to the Jewish faith. But how did this collection come about? Who decided which books would be included, and which wouldnt be, and when did this happen?
This process, known as canonization, did not take place at once, or at some great council meeting. It was a protracted process that took place in stages. These stages correspond to the three major sections of the Bible, and during them, the holiness of at least some of the texts was fiercely disputed.
The first stage saw the creation of the collection called The Torah , with its five books. Only later was the second section, the Prophets with its eight books, created. And only then was the third section, the Writings, created too, resulting in the Hebrew Bible we know today, with its 24 books.
The Torah: Taking shape over centuries
The Torah consists of five books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Genesis describes the creation of the world and the ensuing history until the sons of Jacob go down to Egypt .
and they spake unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the law of Moses, which the Lord had commanded to Israel.
Did the Prophets see Alexander coming
The age of Prophets ends
And now a word from Josephus
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