Why Do Roman Catholic Bibles Have More Books In The Old Testament
Roman Catholic Bibles have 73 books rather than 66. This is because Roman Catholics have 7 additional books in their Old Testament: Tobit, Judith, 1-2 Maccabees, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, and Baruch. They also contain additional material that was added to the books of Daniel and Esther by later Greek interpreters. All of this together is what Catholics call the Deuterocanonicals, and is more popularly known as the Apocrypha. Eastern Orthodox Bibles have even more Apocryphal books like 3 Maccabees, 2 Esdras, and the Prayer of Manasseh. The Ethiopian Orthodox utilize still others like Enoch and Jubilees. These are all ancient Jewish writings from well after the time of the Old Testament which the Jews never intended or accepted as Scripture but which some ancient Gentile Christians mistook for part of the Jewish Canon. While some of this material has historical and cultural value for researchers, the Apocrypha are not genuine, inspired Scripture, and should not be included in the Bible. ancient
Is The Bible Complete
As a result, the answer to your first question is no it is possible that the scriptures are not comprehensive. As additional manuscripts and evidence become available, it is highly conceivable that we may make more changes to the Bible to reflect these changes. As for your second inquiry, the answer is true certain passages have been added and modified after the original manuscripts were written.
The Books Were Written Thousands Of Years Ago
There is also the factor of time. The last written book of the Bible was composed some nineteen hundred years ago. The first books of Scripture, the writings of Moses, were composed about thirty four hundred and fifty years ago. Over this long period of time, manuscripts can become lost or worn out through constant usage. This factor, along with the perishable surfaces of the documents, makes it nearly impossible for an original text to have survived.
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Why Aren’t Other Books Included
Even though we have the canon of Scripture today, there were other writings that were not included. Among those were the writings found in The Apocrypha, which are 14 books written somewhere between 450 BC and the writings of the New Testament. These books can be found as part of the Catholic Bible but are not found in what we would deem a Protestant Bible, which is the Bible you are probably most familiar with. In fact, if you have never seen a Catholic Bible you might not even know these books existed.
After consideration in early church history, it was deemed that these books would not be included in the canon. Though they included useful historical information and were not necessarily bad writings, they were not considered to have the authority of Scripture. Among the reasons is that neither Jesus, nor the early apostles ever referred to these writings and there were teachings within these writings that did not line up with other portions of Scripture. As we mentioned earlier, this was an important test because of the unity of the teachings of Scripture.
New Testament: Who Wrote The Gospels
Just as the Old Testament chronicles the story of the Israelites in the millennium or so leading up to the birth of Jesus Christ, the New Testament records Jesuss life, from his birth and teachings to his death and later resurrection, a narrative that forms the fundamental basis of Christianity. Beginning around 70 A.D., about four decades after Jesuss crucifixion , four anonymously written chronicles of his life emerged that would become central documents in the Christian faith. Named for Jesuss most devoted earthly disciples, or apostlesMatthew, Mark, Luke and Johnthe four canonical Gospels were traditionally thought to be eyewitness accounts of Jesuss life, death and resurrection.
12th-13th century depiction of evangelists Luke and Matthew writing the Gospels.
But for more than a century, scholars have generally agreed that the Gospels, like many of the books of the New Testament, were not actually written by the people to whom they are attributed. In fact, it seems clear that the stories that form the basis of Christianity were first communicated orally, and passed down from generation to generation, before they were collected and written down.
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The Original Order Of The Old Testament
The 22 books of the Original OT are divided into three groups: They are called The Law , The Prophets, and The Writings this last group is sometimes referred to as the Psalms as it is listed first.
Here is what the Jewish Encyclopedia of 1906 says about the sequence:
The “22” books correspond to each of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
The Hebrew Bible has traditionally been divided into three divisions of these 22 books or scrolls:
- Torah : Genesis through Deuteronomy
- Neviim : Joshua/Judges, Samuel/Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Twelve Prophets and
- Ketuvim : Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes , Esther, Daniel, Ezra/Nehemiah, Chronicles.
In Hebrew, the three words Torah-Neviim-Ketuvim are abbreviated to form Tanakh, which is the Jewish word for the Hebrew Bible.
Here is a division that Jesus used:
44 Then He said to them, “These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me.”
The division of the books are as follows:
1. THE LAW : The Pentateuch Five books are in this group:
- Ezra/Nehemiah Chronicles
It perhaps should be mentioned that at least one source claims that Daniel was moved from the prophets to the writings by the Jews around the second century A.D. . If that is true, then the order is different than shown here.
How And Why Can We Trust The Books Of The Christian Bible
If you search around the internet, you may find people who will try to cast doubt about the authenticity of the Bible. You however can be confident in how many books are in the Bible and why just those books are included. Ultimately the decision to include or not include books was not a random decision, made by the whim of man, but was truly led and inspired by the hand of God. It is his desire to protect and provide the truth of who he is to all of mankind. For this reason, he has preserved the authenticity of the scriptures. His word, his promises, his decrees, can all be trusted. Consider these scriptures:
Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished .
For you have been born again, not of perishable seed, but of imperishable, through the living and enduring word of God. For, All people are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field the grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of the Lord endures forever. And this is the word that was preached to you .
As for God, his way is perfect: The Lords word is flawless he shields all who take refuge in him .
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B: Repeat Step 2 For Every Book Of The Bible
That left me with 66 Logos Word Lists, each giving me every original-language word in a given book of the Bible. We can do all sorts of things with these lists. We could print flash cards, see which words occur most, and more.
But I wanted all the words of the Bible in a spreadsheet, so I had to take it a step further. I exported each Word List as a CSV spreadsheet. To do that, I clicked the Word List icon and selected Print/Export.
Then selected Spreadsheet and exported it as a CSV file.
And of course, I did this with all those books, so
Is The Original Bible Still In Existence
Background of the Original BibleDan BrownâsThe Da Vinci CodeCompilation of the Original Old TestamentDead Sea Scrollsfrom the blood of Abel to the blood of ZechariahCompilation of the Original New TestamentSecrets of the CodeMuratorian CanonThe laborer is worthy of his wagesthe other ScripturesOriginal Bible Conclusiontextual criticism
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How Were The Books Decided Upon
The books in the Bible are considered the canon, which are simply the books that are accepted as part of Scripture. For the record, there are 39 books included in the Old Testament canon and 27 books in the New Testament canon. The question is how were these books in the Bible chosen and why just those? Lets answer this by looking at each testament separately.
The Old Testament scriptures were paramount to the Jewish religion, or Judaism. These scriptures were divided into three main sections: The Law, The Prophets, and The Writings. They were grouped a little bit differently than the way you would recognize the Old Testament today, but they still contain the same books. For example, the books of Joshua and Judges were included as among the writings of the Prophets, where today they are referred to more as historical books. Again, this doesnt change the messaging or authority of these books, it is just simply their groupings.
Jews recognized the authority of the Hebrew scriptures almost from the moment they were written. Consider for instance that Moses wrote the first 5 books, which is known as the Law. This was the basis for all Hebrew life and culture and was implemented as soon as Moses wrote them. You will also notice that Jesus and other New Testament writers referred to the Old Testament, even quoting from it. This gave further credibility to their authenticity and authority as the scriptures or the word of God.
The Nation Of Israel Went Through Many Difficult Times
The history of the nation Israel must also be considered. The nation has been twice removed from its homeland. The first time was for seventy years while the second time was for almost nineteen hundred years. At the seventy year Babylonian captivity, the people were sent off to a foreign nation. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed, the temple burned, and all its treasures taken away. It is a testimony to Gods providence that the Scripture survived the deportation of the nation to Babylon. The psalmist wrote of this difficult time:
How can we sing the songs of the LORD while in a foreign land?
As God had promised, the people returned to the land and again sang the songs of Scripture.
At the second exile, the city and temple were again destroyed. Those who survived were taken to Rome and sold as slaves. The nation did not again become an actual functioning state for almost two thousand years.
The Holy Scriptures had to contend with this sort of conflict from those who opposed the nation. The text would have had to have survived these two deportations as well as other calamities the nation faced.
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The Original Order Of The New Testament
The order of the New Testament is shown below in 4 groupings. Here is a common way they have been grouped:
4. THE NEW TESTAMENT ‘PENTATEUCH’ : The Gospels and Acts
The last book of the Bible that was written comes next and last:
Some claim that in the oldest complete manuscripts of the New Testament, there is a five-fold division:
The Slavonic Bible is still organized in this way, but the vast majority of New Testaments follow a different order .
Some ‘experts’ have speculated that the New Testament should start with John’s gospel account. So, there are various opinions on the order.
Analysis Old Testament & New Testament
The 24 canonical books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible can be split into three main parts:
- Torah : 1. Genesis, 2. Exodus, 3. Leviticus, 4. Numbers, 5. Deuteronomy.
- Neviim: 6. Joshua, 7. Judges, 8. Samuel I and II, 9. Kings I and II, 10. Isaiah, 11. Jeremiah, 12. Ezekiel, 13. Twelve Minor Prophets .
- Ketuvim: 14. Psalms, 15. Proverbs, 16. Job, 17. Song of Songs , 18. Ruth, 19. Lamentations, 20. Ecclesiastes, 21. Esther, 22. Daniel, 23. Ezra , 24. Chronicles I and II.
The Christian Old Testament is the collection of books written prior to the life of Jesus but accepted by Christians as scripture, and is broadly speaking the same as the Hebrew Bible as listed above . Some denominations also incorporate additional books into their canons. For example, the Roman Catholic Church also recognizes the following biblical apocrypha or deuterocanonical books: Tobit, Judith, Maccabees I and II, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach , Baruch, and some Greek additions to Esther and Daniel.
The Christian Bible also includes the New Testament, which relates the life and teachings of Jesus, the letters of the Apostle Paul and other disciples to the early church, and the Book of Revelation. This accounts for a further 27 books as follows:
- The Gospels .
- Acts of the Apostles.
- St. Pauls Epistles .
- Other Epistles .
- Revelation .
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The Canon Of The New Testament
The earliest available list of New Testament books is known as the MuratorianCanon and is dated around A.D. 150. It includes the four Gospels, Acts,thirteen letters of Paul, Jude, two letters of John, and theRevelation of John. It claims that these were accepted by the universal church.This leaves out 1 and 2 Peter, James, and Hebrews. However, 1 Peter was widelyaccepted by this time and may be an oversight by the compiler . No other books are present except the Wisdom of Solomon, but thismust be an error since that book belongs in the Apocrypha and no one everadded it to the New Testament!
By A.D. 240, Origen from Alexandria was using all our 27 books asScripture, and no others, and referred to them as the New Testament.13 Hebelieved them to be inspired by the Spirit.14 But it was not until A.D. 367that Athanasius, also from Alexandria, provided us with an actual list of NewTestament books identical with ours.15
However, long before we have that list, the evidence shows that the 27books, and only those, were widely accepted as Scripture.
What Made A Book Scripture
At first, the churches had no need to define what made a book special andequal to the Old Testament Scriptures. If the letter came from Paul or Peter,that was sufficient. However, it was not long before others began writing additionalletters and gospels either to fill the gaps or to propagate their own ideas.Some tests became necessary, and during the first 200 years, five tests were usedat various times.
Apostolicdoes it come from an apostle?
The first Christians asked, Was it written by an apostle or underthe direction of an apostle? They expected this just as the Jews hadexpected theirs to be underwritten by the prophets. Paul was insistentthat his readers should be reassured that the letters they received actuallycame from his pen .
Authenticdoes it have the ring of truth?
The authoritative voice of the prophets, This is what the Lordsays, is matched by the apostles claim to write not the words of menbut the words of God . It was the internal witnessof the texts themselves that was strong evidence of canonicity.
Ancienthas it been used from the earliest times?
Most of the false writings were rejected simply because they weretoo new to be apostolic. Early in the fourth century, Athanasius listedthe New Testament canon as we know it today and claimed that thesewere the books received by us through tradition as belonging to theCanon.16
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How Many Books In The Catholic Bible
The Catholic Bible is a sacred text for catholic Christians. It is published under Catholic canon law. It contains 46 books from the old testament, 27 books from the new testament, making it 73 books.
The deuterocanonical book is the Greek Septuagint Collection used to create the book of the Old Testament. It doesnt contain a collection of Masoretic Hebrew text. It is translated from all Hebrew and Aramaic languages as well as Greek languages.
Many stories, texts, and incidents are found in it, which are called gods words. There are many books in the library, including wisdom books, prophetic and historical books, revelations, etc. These parts include stories that guide their followers, stories about Christ, and books that contain direct words from the gods.
There are many other translations available in English. Some examples of English-translated versions of the catholic Bible include Knox Bible, Douay-Rheims Bible, and Jerusalem Bible. The Council of Trent still believes Vulgate is the official translation of the Bible.
Many other bible versions were created over time, including the protestant Bible. However, it retained the same form as when it was first made.
What 7 Books Are In The Catholic Bible
What are they? A: There are seven books in the Catholic Bible Baruch, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Sirach, Tobit and Wisdom that are not included in the Protestant version of the Old Testament. These books are referred to as the deuterocanonical books.
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