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Who Determined The Books Of The Bible

How Many Books Are In The Bible

How Did We Get The Bible and who decided what books to put in the Bible?

The current English Bible consists of 66 books with two distinct sections: The Old Testament and the New Testament. The two sections are arranged this way to highlight the birth of Jesus, with the Old Testament sharing the emerging prophecies of the Messiah.

The most read book of all time is the Bible, surpassing favorites such as The Lord of the Rings series, the Harry Potter series, and even classics like The Diary of Anne Frank and To Kill a Mockingbird. It is recorded by Business Insider that the Bible has sold 3.9 billion copies over the last 50 years, while the Harry Potter series has sold 400 million copies.

What is it about the Bible that has made it the book to turn to for the last half-century? It is a book that also has various translations to choose from and even different representations among the Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant faiths. The Book of Hebrews states it best when explaining why the Word of God is something everyone is drawn to:

For the word of God is alive and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart, .

Lets journey through the origins of the Bible, learning as we go of how the Bible has affected not only the lives of countless people but has also become the foundational building blocks for the leading faiths in our world today.

The Gospels Are The Beginning Of The Nt

The word “Gospel” is derived from “good spell” and the Greek “evangelion”, which means “good news”. The 4 Gospels illuminate the life of Jesus from 4 different perspectives. The first 3 gospels Matthew, Mark and Luke are referred to as “synoptic gospels” because they have much in common in a temporal compilation of events than the Gospel of John. Since Jesus is the Word of God who came to earth to save people from eternal death, the Gospels are the most important books in the entire Bible. They belong to the beginning of the NT and are therefore right in the center of the 7-part Bible:

Who Was King David

The first wave of scribes may, its been suggested, have started work during the reign of King David . Whether thats true or not, David is a monumental figure in the biblical story the slayer of Goliath, the conqueror of Jerusalem. David is also a hugely important figure in the quest to establish links between the Bible and historical fact, for he appears to be the earliest biblical figure to be confirmed by archaeology.

I killed king of the house of David. So boasts the Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone dating from 870750 BC and discovered in northern Israel in the 1990s. Like the Merneptah Stele before it, it documents a warlords victory over the Israelites . But it at least indicates that David was a historical figure.

The Tel Dan Stele also suggests that,no matter how capable their rulers, the people of Israel continued to be menaced by powerful, belligerent neighbours. And, in 586 BC, one of those neighbours, the Babylonians, would inflict on the Jews one of the most devastating defeats in their history: ransacking the sacred city of Jerusalem, butchering its residents, and dragging many more back to Babylonia.

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The Order Of The Books Of The Nt

The scholars realized very early that exactly 27 scrolls form the New Testament . Nothing has changed to this day. The New Testament, abbreviated NT, is a collection of 27 scriptures of early Christianity in Greek, proclaiming Jesus Christ as the Messiah and Son of God come to save Israel and the cosmos. Thus, all people know exactly which books belong to the inspired NT and which are not. There is no doubt in Christianity. But as far as the order of the individual writings is concerned, there is disagreement. The arrangement of the books in the NT in the pictures on this website corresponds to the old and original order . The NT consists of 4 parts, Gospels, Acts, 21 Letters , and Revelation. Together with the 3 parts of the OT, the entire Bible consists of 7 parts. Some theologians confirm the 4-division, but they group the Gospels and Acts into a single group, subdividing the 21 letters into two groups, the 7 General and 14 Paul’s letters and Revelation]. But this is not logical, because the similarities in content are much larger in the letters than between the Gospels and Acts. In addition, the Epistle group consists of exactly 21 books , which harmonizes with the 21 books of the prophets of the OT. We are very fortunate, because the order of the books of the NT is correct in most Bibles, for only the position of the Epistle to the Hebrews should have been a little higher up.

What Are The 14 Books Removed From The Bible

Who Decided What Books Are in the Bible?

This book contains: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, The Book of Tobit, The Book of Susanna, Additions to Esther, The Book of Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, The Epistle of Jeremiah, The Prayer of Azariah, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasses, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, Book of Enoch, Book of Jubilees, Gospel of

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Nicaea And The Canon In History

There is no historical basis for the idea that Nicaea established the canon and created the Bible. The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity and other early evidence show that Christians disputed the boundaries of the biblical canon before and after Nicaea. For example, even lists from pro-Nicaean fathers such as Cyril of Jerusalem and Athanasius of Alexandria dont agree on the inclusion of Revelation. None of the early records from the council, nor eyewitness attendees , mentions any conciliar decision that established the canon.

There is no historical basis for the idea that the Council of Nicaea established the canon and created the Bible.

But since the Nicene Council is considered to have counted this book among the number of sacred Scriptures, I have acquiesced to your request .

Could Jerome be referring to a formal decision to include Judith in the canon? Thats unlikely.

How The Books Of The Bible Were Chosen

Some religious groups today accept the Bible as one of their religious books but they also accept other so-called revelations from God. We deny that any of these claims are accurate. The sixty-six books of the Bible form the completed canon of Scripture. Canon comes from reed or measurement. A canonical book is one that measured up to the standard of Scripture. Today, books in the canon are those that are universally recognized by Christians on the official list of books of Scripture. Christianity accepts sixty-six books of the Bible, thirty-nine Old Testament books and twenty-seven New Testament books.

Josephus, a Jewish historian during the life of Christ, testified that the books of the Old Testament were brought together during the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus during the life of Ezra the Scribe . H. C. Theissen notes:

The early Christian church used four criteria to determine what books appeared in the canon. First, they included books that were written by apostles or an author in special relationship to an apostle, such as Mark, Luke, and James. Second, the contents were revelatory in nature hence, apocryphal, and pseudepigraphical books were eliminated. Many such books appeared around 200 B.C. Third, the church accepted books that were universally recognized as Scripture. These were the books that were used in preaching and teaching. Finally, the books that were considered inspired or gave evidence of inspiration where placed in the canon.

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The Old Testament Was Already Put Together By The Time Of Jesus

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  • M.A., Christian Studies, Union University
  • B.A., English Literature, Wheaton College

Determining when the Bible was written poses challenges because it isn’t a single book. It’s a collection of 66 books written by more than 40 authors over more than 2,000 years.

So there are two ways to answer the question, “When was the Bible written?” The first is to identify the original dates for each of the Bible’s 66 books. The second, the focus here is to describe how and when all 66 books were collected in a single volume.

Stories You Didn’t Learn In Sunday School

Chapter 7: Who Determined What Books Should Be in the Bible?

Many of the New Testament texts familiar to Christians today were being used authoritatively already in the second century, but different congregations preferred some texts over others and included some texts that don’t appear in the New Testament. Here are a few:

The Gospel of Peter: Only a fragment of this text was recovered in 1886 in Egypt, but it includes the only narrative account of the resurrected Jesus leaving his tomb. According to Peter’s version, two giant angels descended to the tomb and escorted the resurrected Jesus out, who was also suddenly gigantic. But the oddest note was that the three figures were followed by a floating cross that could talk.

“And they heard a voice from the heavens, saying, ‘Thou hast preached to them that sleep.’ And a response was heard from the cross, ‘Yea.'”

The Gospel of Mary: Combs says that some apocryphal texts reflected theological and doctrinal debates going on within the early church, such as the role of women. In the Gospel of Mary , is not only referred to as one of Jesus’s disciples, but perhaps his favorite one. In this text, after Jesus is resurrected, he relays esoteric teachings to Mary, who then tells the other disciples. Peter asks why they should listen to a woman, to which another disciple Levi responds:

“If the Savior made her worthy, who are you then, for your part, to cast her aside? Surely the Savior knows her full well. That is why he has loved her more than us.”

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Who Wrote The Bible: The New Testament

Wikimedia CommonsA depiction of Jesus delivering the Sermon on the Mount.

Finally, the question of who wrote the Bible turns to the texts dealing with Jesus and beyond.

In the second century B.C. with the Greeks still in power, Jerusalem was run by fully Hellenized kings who considered it their mission to erase Jewish identity with full assimilation.

To that end, King Antiochus Epiphanes had a Greek gymnasium built across the street from the Second Temple and made it a legal requirement for Jerusalems men to visit it at least once. The thought of stripping nude in a public place blew the minds of Jerusalems faithful Jews, and they rose in bloody revolt to stop it.

In time, Hellenistic rule fell apart in the area and was replaced by the Romans. It was during this time, early in the first century A.D., that one of the Jews from Nazareth inspired a new religion, one that saw itself as a continuation of Jewish tradition, but with scriptures of its own:

Wikimedia CommonsPaul the Apostle

While the writings attributed to John actually do show some congruity between who wrote the Bible according to tradition and who wrote the Bible according to historical evidence, the question of Biblical authorship remains thorny, complex, and contested.

How Were The Books Of The Bible Selected And Compiled And How Were The Decisions Made As To What Would Be Distributed As The Word Of God

Even though we think of the Bible as being one book, it’s actually a collection of sixty-six books, and we realize that there was a historical process by which those particular books were gathered together and placed in one volume that we now know as the Bible. In fact, we call the Bible the canon of sacred Scripture. Canon is taken from the Greek word canon, which means “measuring rod.” That means it is the standard of truth by which all other truth is to be judged in the Christian life.

There have been many different theories set forth over the history of the church as to exactly how God’s hand was involved in this selection process. Skeptics have pointed out that over three thousand books were candidates for inclusion in the New Testament canon alone, and only a handful were selected. Doesn’t that raise some serious questions? Isn’t it possible that certain books that are in the Bible should not be there and others that were excluded by human evaluation and human judgment should have been included? We need to keep in mind, however, that of those not included in the last analysis, there were at the most three or four that were given serious consideration. So to speak in terms of two or three thousand being boiled down to twenty-seven or something like that is a distortion of historical reality.

Tough Questions with RC Sproul is excerpted from Now, Thats a Good Question! Copyright © 1996 by R. C. Sproul. All rights reserved.

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The Order Of The Books Of The Ot

The correct grouping and order of the individual books of the Old Testament is not complicated and has been known for over 2,200 years. The Hebrew Bible Tanakh has a clear structure. The Tanakh is a collection of Hebrew scriptures from a period of about 1,200 years. It consists of the 3 parts Torah , Nevi’im and Ketuvim . The initial letters “TNK” gave the Hebrew Bible the nameTaNaKh. The Christians do not use this name, but “Old Testament” or “Old Covenant”, as a difference to the “New Testament” or the “New Covenant”. The canonization of the OT was already completed at the time of Ezra and Nehemiah and was clearly separated from all other scriptures . The official Hebrew Bible has been reaffirmed in Judaism over the centuries. There is absolute certainty: today we have exactly the same books as during the lifetime of Jesus. The Hebrew Bible was originally written on 22 book scrolls, but contains a total of 39 individual books . The Christians have taken over all 39 books of the Tanakh, but they changed without real reason: the grouping, the order and the number of books by adding additional books to the OT that do not belong to the Bible . Thus they have separated themselves from the order of the Hebrew foundation, that is, from the original, which is why they have lost their knowledge of the symbolism of biblical numbers.

Who Decided Which Books Should Be Included In The Bible

How and when was the canon of the Bible put together ...

How we address this question determines whether we believe that the Bible, as we have it, came into being as a result of the guidance of the Holy Spirit in the early church.

Kwabena Donkor, PhD, is an associate director, Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

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  • Who decided which books should be included in the Bible?

Many Christians find great value in reading the Bible because they believe that this Book was given by the inspiration of God. But have you ever wondered who decided which books should be included in the collection that we refer to as the Bible? Canonization, the term given to the process by which books were included or excluded from the Bible, is a word derived from the Greek kanon whose basic meaning is that of a rule. Sometimes the books included in our Bible are, therefore, called canonical books, although canonization deals with more than a mere list of books.

Consider canonization as a question about why certain books came to be regarded as sacred and authoritative in the early Christian communities. How we address this question determines whether we believe that the Bible, as we have it, came into being as a result of the guidance of the Holy Spirit in the early church or whether political forces in the time of Constantine were responsible, as some people claim. Since the Bible consists of the Old and New Testaments, the question will be answered in two parts.

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Legacy And Impact Of The Bible

The sheer diversity of literature in the Bible is one of the secrets of its continuing popularity through the centuries. There is something for all moods and many different cultures. Its message is not buried in religious jargon only accessible to either believers or scholars, but reflects the issues that people struggle with in daily life. Despite their different emphases, all its authors shared the conviction that this world and its affairs are not just a haphazard sequence of random coincidences, but are the forum of God’s activity – a God who is not remote or unknowable, but a personal being who can be known by ordinary people.

Melvyn Bragg believes the King James version of the Bible, first published in 1611, has had a profound effect on human history over the last 400 years.

Latter Day Saint Canons

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Pearl of Great Price contains five sections: “Selections from the Book of Moses“, “The Book of Abraham“, “Joseph SmithMatthew“, “Joseph SmithHistory“, and “The Articles of Faith“. The Book of Moses and Joseph SmithMatthew are portions of the Book of Genesis and the Gospel of Matthew from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, also known as the Inspired Version of the Bible.

The manuscripts of the unfinished Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible state that “the Song of Solomon is not inspired scripture”, but it is still printed in every version of the King James Bible published by the church.

The standard works are printed and distributed by the LDS Church in a single binding called a “quadruple combination” or as a set of two books, with the Bible in one binding, and the other three books in a second binding called a “triple combination”. Current editions of the standard works include a bible dictionary, photographs, maps and gazetteer, topical guide, index, footnotes, cross references, excerpts from the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible, and other study aids.

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