Who Spoke The Magnificat
Lately an attempt has been made to ascribe the Magnificat to Elizabeth instead of to the Blessed Virgin. All the early Fathers, all the Greek manuscripts, all the versions, all the Latin manuscripts have the reading in Luke 1:46: Kai eipen Mariam–Et ait Maria : Magnificat anima mea Dominum, etc. Three Old Latin manuscripts , a, b, l , have Et ait Elisabeth. These tend to such close agreement that their combined evidence is single rather than threefold. They are full of gross blunders and palpable corruptions, and the attempt to pit their evidence against the many thousands of Greek, Latin, and other manuscripts, is anything but scientific. If the evidence were reversed, Catholics would be held up to ridicule if they ascribed the Magnificat to Mary. The three manuscripts gain little or no support from the internal evidence of the passage. The Magnificat is a cento from the song of Anna , the Psalms, and other places of the Old Testament. If it were spoken by Elizabeth it is remarkable that the portion of Anna’s song that was most applicable to her is omitted: “The barren hath borne many: and she that had many children is weakened.” See, on this subject, Emmet in “The Expositor” Bernard, ibid. and the exhaustive works of two Catholic writers: Ladeuze, “Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique” Bardenhewer, “Maria Verkündigung” .
How Did All The Apostles Die
There are also two versions of his death: that he was crucified in Edessa, Turkey, or clubbed to death. There are actually some differing versions of the way the apostles died. They, after all, lived at a time when communication and documentation were not as sophisticated and easy as they are today.
Luke The Careful Historian
Luke apparently wrote his Gospel around A.D. 60-61, some 30 years after Jesus’ death. We can arrive at this time by examining the evidence for when he wrote the book of Acts.
Luke begins Acts by referring to “the former account” he had written , the Gospel of Luke. The final chapter of Acts concludes with events that preceded Nero’s persecution of Christians and Paul’s death. Otherwise Luke surely would have mentioned both. The book ends with Paul under house arrest in Rome awaiting trial for the charges brought against him. No account of a trial or verdict is mentioned anywhere.
Most Bible scholars thus agree that Acts was written around 63 and reflects events in the Church up until that time. Thus, if Luke wrote Acts then, he must have written his Gospel a few years earlier, ca. 60-61.
Apparently Luke was not an eyewitness of Jesus’ mighty works and teachings but was one who copiously incorporated others’ eyewitness accounts .
When we examine Luke’s Gospel we see how careful he was. In the first few verses He claims his work is the product of careful research. He notes that he bases his account on information “handed down to us by those who from the first were eye-witnesses” . As a seasoned traveler, Luke had opportunities to interview the best sources , and he listened carefully to their stories and testimonials, taking voluminous notes.
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How Did Peter Die
Simon, also known as Peter, was one of the most prominent disciples of Jesus Christ, and one of the most important leaders of the early Christian church , so it shouldnt come as a surprise that he suffered a fate similar to Jesus.
Peter was crucified, but with a twist: they hung his cross upside down.
According to church tradition, Peter was killed by Emperor Nero around 64 AD, after the Great Fire of Rome, which he famously blamed Christians for starting. A second-century apocryphal text called Acts of Peter was the first account claiming Peter was crucified upside down, which was allegedly because he didnt consider himself worthy of dying the same death as Jesus.
At the end of the Gospel of John, Jesus predicts Peters death when he tells him, when you are old you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you where you do not want to go . In case you missed that, John remarks, Jesus said this to indicate the kind of death by which Peter would glorify God .
Clement of Rome, an early church father who personally knew the apostles, wrote in his famous letter known as 1 Clement, Let us take the noble examples of our own generation. Through jealousy and envy the greatest and most just pillars of the Church were persecuted, and came even unto death. . . . Peter, through unjust envy, endured not one or two but many labours, and at last, having delivered his testimony, departed unto the place of glory due to him.
Argument Against Lukes Authorship
Secular and Christian scholars agree that these books were both written by the same person, but not everyone believes it was Luke.
The biggest argument against Luke as the author of these two volumes is that there are perceived inconsistencies between his account of Pauls missionary journeys and Pauls own accounts as recorded in his letters. Some also argue that he misrepresents Pauls theology. One would expect a close companion of Paul to get these things right.
For example, in Acts 9:1930, we read that immediately after Pauls conversion, he spent time with the believers in Damascus, preached for many days, and eventually came to Jerusalem.
But Paul says he didnt go to Jerusalem right away , and that he was personally unknown to the Christian churches of Judea .
This certainly appears to be a contradiction, but the language is ambiguous. Acts doesnt specify how much time passed before Paul went to Jerusalem, nor does Paul being personally unknown the the churches overall mean that he couldnt have had private meetings with the apostles or that the churches had never heard of him.
Some also argue that Acts 15:135, which records the Council of Jerusalem , contradicts Pauls account of the same event in Galatians 2:110.
However, others argue that these are two separate events.
There are a few instances like this where Paul and Luke appear to contradict one another, but where the language is ambiguous enough that there is room for interpretation.
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Bible History Daily Articles By Robin Gallaher Branch:
The Bible and Sexuality in South Africa: How Tamars story is helping redefine sexual attitudes With the Bible used as both tool and resource, human sexuality is being openly discussed in South Africa, according to a paper presented recently by Gerald O. West at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature in Chicago.
Barnabas: An Encouraging Early Church Leader, part one Who is Barnabas in the Bible? In part one of this two-part study, Robin Branch describes the traits that define Barnabas as an early church leader.
Barnabas: An Encouraging Early Church Leader, part two Who is Barnabas in the Bible? In part two of this two-part study, Robin Branch describes the traits that define Barnabas as an early church leader.
Judith: A Remarkable Heroine, part one The Book of Judith presents a truly remarkable heroine. Judith is introduced as a devout, shapely, beautiful and wealthy widow who exhibits characteristics equal to those of Israels finest warriors.
Judith: A Remarkable Heroine, part two This article continues Robin Gallaher Branchs earlier post discussing the character Judith, the remarkable heroine of the book bearing her name.
Widows in the Bible In a Biblical Views column, Robin Gallaher Branch presents several examples of how, in the Bible, widows can serve as special textual markers to alert readers that something significant is about to happen.
Apostles Peter Andrew James And John
The first group of four apostles was Jesus inner group. They became His followers shortly after the beginning of His ministry. John 1:35-42 records the occasion on which they responded to Jesus by believing in Him that He was the promised Messiah. Jesus asked them to follow Him three times. The first time was after they believed. The second time occurred when they were fishing and the third time occurred after another time of fishing . On that occasion they finally left everything and followed Jesus. At least three of them were invited to join Jesus when He raised Jairus daughter from the dead . Jesus also invited only Peter, James, and John to join Him on the Mount of Transfiguration . All four privately asked Jesus questions on the Mount of Olives . Peter, James, and John were asked to wait for Jesus while He prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane . Lastly, Peter and John were in discussion with Jesus prior to His departure to heaven . John was the disciple Jesus asked to care for His mother . It should be noted that James and John had the same father, Zebedee and Peter and Andrew were brothers . These men were part of Jesus inner group.
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B Jesus Dies And Is Buried
1. Simon carries Jesus cross.
Now as they led Him away, they laid hold of a certain man, Simon a Cyrenian, who was coming from the country, and on him they laid the cross that he might bear it after Jesus.
a. As they led Him away: Even before Jesus was to be scourged, His physical condition was weak. It is reasonable to assume that Jesus was in good physical condition up until the night of His arrest.
i. The rigors of Jesus ministry would have precluded any major physical illness or a weak general constitution.
ii. Yet during the 12 hours between 9 p.m. Thursday and 9 a.m. Friday, Jesus suffered many things, both physically and in the high-stress challenges that took a toll on Him physically.
· Jesus suffered great emotional stress in the Garden of Gethsemane, as indicated when His sweat became like great drops of blood . Although this is a very rare phenomenon, bloody sweat may occur in highly emotional states or in persons with bleeding disorders. As a result of hemorrhage into the sweat glands, the skin becomes fragile and tender.
· Jesus suffered the emotional stress of abandonment by His disciples.
· Jesus suffered a severe physical beating at the home of the high priest.
· Jesus suffered a sleepless night.
· Jesus suffered, being forced to walk more than two and a half miles.
· All of these factors made Jesus especially vulnerable to the effects of scourging.
i. When the soldiers tore the robe from Jesus back, they probably reopened the scourging wounds.
How Did Matthias Die
Matthias is the most obscure apostle, so it shouldnt be a surprise that we cant be very sure what he did or how he died.
Some traditions claim he was stoned at the end of his ministry to cannibals in Aethiopia . Another that he was stoned by Jews in Jerusalem and then beheaded. Hippolytus of Rome records that he died in Jerusalem of old age.
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How Did St Luke The Apostle Die
. Similarly, you may ask, what happened to St Luke?
According to ancient sources, St. Luke was martyred at age 84 in the Greek city of Thebes. His remains were taken to Constantinople about 338 CE and later moved to Padua, Italy, where they are kept in the Basilica of Santa Giustina. A rib is interred at his original burial place in Thebes.
Also Know, where did the Apostle Luke die? Thiva, Greece
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Is Luke A Reliable Biblical Author
Luke has both been praised and criticized for his accuracy and attention to detail. Some hail his work as a marvel of ancient history, while others denounce it as a fabrication designed to push a theological agenda.
A lot of the conflict centers around those ambiguous passages that appear to conflict with Paul, but there are also occasional historical discrepancies, like in Acts 5:3637. Luke records a speech given by a well-known Pharisee named Gamaliel :
Some time ago Theudas appeared, claiming to be somebody, and about four hundred men rallied to him. He was killed, all his followers were dispersed, and it all came to nothing. After him, Judas the Galilean appeared in the days of the census and led a band of people in revolt. He too was killed, and all his followers were scattered.
The problem with this is that Judas actually led a rebellion before Theudas, and Theudas didnt revolt until many years after the events recorded in Acts 5.
In spite of instances like this, many scholars find Luke remarkably reliable. In fact, some argue that these errors are simply conventions of the genre Luke was writing in.
Lukes account is selected and shaped to suit his apologetic interests, not in defiance of but in conformity to ancient standards of historiography. Luke Timothy Johnson, New Testament scholar
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How Did Paul Die
His death isnt recorded in the Bible, but its one of the more well-documented martyrdoms in the early church. Numerous early church fathers wrote that he was beheaded by emperor Nero, which would mean it had to be sometime before 68 AD.
Clement of Rome provided the earliest surviving record of Pauls death in his letter to the Corinthians, where he mentions that Paul and Peter were martyred.
An apocryphal work from the second century known as The Acts of Paul says that Nero had Paul decapitated. And in 200 AD, Tertullian wrote that Pauls death was like John the Baptists . Other early Christian writers support these claims and provide some additional details like where it happened and where he was buried .
Was Luke One Of Jesus Twelve Disciples
Luke was not part of Jesus group of disciples called the Twelve. There are four passages that give the names of all 12 disciples , and Luke isnt in any of them . Their names are:
- Judas Iscariot
While Luke wasnt an eyewitness to Jesus ministry, he certainly had access to at least the accounts of those who were , including the Gospel of Mark .
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How Did Bartholomew Die
Pretty gross, right? But there are other records of his death, too.
Foxes Book of Martyrs claims that in India, He was at length cruelly beaten and then crucified by the impatient idolaters.
The Golden Legend notes several accounts:
There be divers opinions of the manner of his passion. For the blessed Dorotheus saith that he was crucified, and saith also: Bartholomew preached to men of India, and delivered to them the gospel after Matthew in their proper tongue. He died in Alban, a city of great Armenia, crucified the head downward. St. Theoderus saith that he was flayed, and it is read in many books that he was beheaded only. And this contrariety may be assoiled in this manner, that some say that he was crucified and was taken down ere he died, and for to have greater torment he was flayed and at the last beheaded.
Another tradition claims he was beaten unconscious and drowned in the ocean.
However Bartholomew died, it was probably pretty gruesome. But while they may not agree on the manner of his death, all of the traditions connect Bartholomews death to his ministry. Now, if only they could all agree on where that was.
How Did The Apostles Die What We Actually Know
Jesus closest followers were the apostles, known as the Twelve. As leaders in the early church, each of the apostles played an integral role in spreading the church throughout the ancient world, and many of them died as a direct result of their ministry efforts, often at the hands of the people they were called to reach.
In the Bible, fourteen people are considered apostlesthe original members of the Twelve, plus Matthias , and Paul . They were all real people who lived and died in the first century AD.
Only two of their deaths are recorded in the Bible . Most of what we know about the other apostles deaths come from ancient Christian writers and church tradition, and there are often multiple accounts of where and how they died. Its commonly believed that only one apostle died of natural causes , but some accounts suggest there may have been others who werent martyred. Traditionally, each apostle has been portrayed in art holding or wearing an icon associated with their death .
Is there a particular apostle you want to learn about? Use the links below to skip ahead:
Lets begin with a quick look at all the ways the apostles may have died according to Scripture, tradition, and legend.
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Tertullian Called Him Apostolic
Tertullian was an important Christian writer who lived in the second and third centuries. In Against Marcion, he separated the gospel writers into apostles and apostolic men, distinguishing between John and Matthew and Luke and John Mark, who were companions of apostles and presumably knew them well:
Of the apostles, therefore, John and Matthew first instil faith into us whilst of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards.
Scholars are generally cautious to use the term apostle, and wouldnt use it for Luke. However, in a non-academic setting, nobody would bat an eye if you called Luke an apostle. People often use the term to describe any prominent Christian who was there in the earliest days of the church.
How Did Simon The Zealot Die
- In the fifth century, Moses of Chorene wrote that Simon the Zealot was martyred in the Kingdom of Iberia.
- The Golden Legend says he was martyred in Persia in 65 AD.
- Ethiopian Christians believe he was crucified in Samaria.
- Another account says he was crucified in 61 AD in Britain.
- In the sixteenth century, Justus Lipsius claimed he was sawed in half.
- Eastern tradition claims he died of old age in Edessa.
So maybe he was a martyr. And maybe not. But he probably was.
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