How Is A Torah Scroll Constructed
The Torah scrolls are entirely handwritten in Hebrew by a sofer on parchment from a kosher animal. This is usually a cow. It can take up to 18 months to complete the whole process from the complex preparation of the animal skins to the writing of the final words. Great accuracy is needed when the sofer writes the scroll. If he makes any mistakes it can make the whole scroll pasul . The completed scroll is known as a Sefer Torah from sefer which is the Hebrew for book.
A Sefer Torah is so sacred to Jews it is said that if one is accidentally dropped in the synagogue the whole congregation must fast for 40 days. When Jewish communities have suffered persecution, great efforts would be made to preserve these scrolls. This demonstrates just how symbolically and physically important the Torah is to Jews.
Oral Torah: The Talmud
In addition to the written scriptures we have an “Oral Torah,” a tradition explaining what the above scriptures mean and how to interpret them and apply the Laws. Orthodox Jews believe G-d taught the Oral Torah to Moses, and he taught it to others, down to the present day. This tradition was maintained only in oral form until about the 2d century C.E., when the oral law was compiled and written down in a document called the Mishnah.
Over the next few centuries, additional commentaries elaborating on the Mishnah were written down in Jerusalem and Babylon. These additional commentaries are known as the Gemara. The Gemara and the Mishnah together are known as the Talmud. This was completed in the 5th century C.E.
There are actually two Talmuds: the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud is more comprehensive, and is the one most people mean if they just say “the Talmud” without specifying which one.
There have been additional commentaries on the Talmud by such noted Jewish scholars as Rashi and Rambam. Adin Steinsaltz recently completed a new edition of the Talmud, with his own commentary supplementing the Mishnah, Gemara, and Rashi commentaries.
- Zera’im , dealing with agricultural laws
The Prophets: The Neviim
Included in this section are:
It may seem odd to Christian readers that some books made the cut of the prophets section and others didnt. For instance, Joshua doesnt appear to have much prophecy, but Daniel does .
We have to keep in mind that we will see differences in structure and even some of the content in the Tanakh versus the Old Testament. This article, for instance, mentions that in Christian Bibles, we have some more material for certain books such as Esther and Daniel, etc. that the Jews do not consider to be canonical.
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What Is The Culturally Sensitive Way To Refer To The Old Testament
I am aware of the need to refer to the ‘old testament’ as the Hebrew Bible. Is it appropriate in writing to refer to the Hebrew Bible as the Hebrew Testament? I see no references written in that manner but my pastor wants me to use Hebrew Testament in my writing. thanks.
Using Hebrew Testament should have no problems. The problem that many have withOld Testament is that the term can sound like the first part of the Bible is dated, belongs in the past. Hebrew isnt completely accurate since a good part of Daniel is in Aramaic. Another problem that I have with Hebrew Bible is that this use of Bible makes it sound like the Old Testament is a separate Bible from the New Testament. I like the terms First Testament and New Testament.”
This is an issue scholars are still debating. No consensus has been reached. Therefore my opinion will be just that, another opinion. I hope it is helpful.
I would say that the positive thing about using the expression Hebrew Testament is that it avoids falling into supersession, this idea that Christianity is superior and has replaced Judaism. In my opinion, using the expressions Hebrew Testament and Christian Testament, recognizes the fact the God has dealt equally but differently with two groups of people and that both traditions are valid.
The Contents Of The Bible
The Torah, or Five Books of Moses, retells the story of how the family of Abraham and Sarah became the people of Israel, and how they came back from exile in Egypt, under the leadership of Moses, to the border of the land of Israel, on the way stopping at Mount Sinai for the revelation of what are known as the Ten Commandments. The Torah includes both the narrative of the formation of the people of Israel and the laws defining the covenant that binds the people to God.
The Prophets is itself divided into two parts. The former prophets including the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings are narratives that explain the history of Israel from the perspective of Israels fulfillment of Gods covenant. The latter prophets including Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, along with 12 minor prophets report the exhortations of these fiery leaders to return to God and Torah.
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Assyrian Church Of The East
The , with an unbroken patriarchate established in the 17th century, is an independent denomination which claims continuity from the âin parallel to the Catholic patriarchate established in the 16th century that evolved into the , an church in with the . It is an Eastern Christian that follows the traditional and of the historical Church of the East. Largely and not in with any other church, it belongs to the eastern branch of , and uses the in its .
Its main spoken language is , a dialect of , and the majority of its adherents are ethnic . It is officially headquartered in the city of in northern , and its original area also spreads into south-eastern Turkey and north-western Iran, corresponding to ancient . Its hierarchy is composed of and , while lower clergy consists of and , who serve in dioceses and parishes throughout the Middle East, India, North America, Oceania, and Europe .
The distinguished itself from the in 1964. It is one of the churches that claim continuity with the historical âthe Church of the East, one of the oldest Christian churches in Mesopotamia.
How To Study The Bible
The Bible is not a difficult book to begin learning, although its complexity makes it difficult to master. A biblical narrative does not stand on its own some contemporary literary theorists of the Bible take their lead from the Midrash and read the Bible as a whole, reading how parts of the Torah reflect on other parts, and how the Prophets and Writings similarly refer to earlier narratives and laws. From a canonical perspective, reading the book of Exodus is a first step reading how the prophet Ezekiel retells the story of the Exodus is a next step. Reading the scroll of Esther is a first step rereading the story of Joseph to tease out the similarities is a next step.
Similarly, one can read the Bible in the context of the cognate literatures that grew up in a similar ancient Near Eastern environment. How is the Noah story similar to or different from the Gilgamesh epic? How are the laws of Exodus similar to and different from Hammurabis code?
Or one might read the Bible in light of the ongoing search for a life of sanctification and redemption, as the Rabbis did. How does the Bible relate to Jewish theology or religious practice? One can study the Bible from a variety of different perspectives literary, historical, anthropological, theological as the rabbinic sage Yochanan Ben Bag Bag said, Turn it, and turn it, for everything is found within it.
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Tanakh: The 24 Books Of The Hebrew Bible
To Christians, the Bible is sacred. Its divided into two big sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament.
And a good deal of Bible geeks know that the Old Testament books are sacred to the Jewish faith, too. In fact, when Peter, Paul, and Jesus talk about Scripture in the New Testament, theyre referring to the books of the Old Testamentmost of which had been considered sacred for a while.
But since there was no New Testament, , nobody called it the Old Testament. Instead, through the ages, the Rabbis have called this group of texts the Tanakh.
But theres a twist: although the text of the Tanakh is pretty much the same as the Old Testament, the books are in a different order. The order of these books is fascinating .
I thought you might enjoy seeing how the Tanakh arranges these books, so I made a new video showing how they all fit together. Enjoy!
And in case you wanted to copy-paste this goodness
Divine Significance Of Letters Jewish Mysticism
Kabbalists hold that not only do the words of Torah give a divine message, but they also indicate a far greater message that extends beyond them. Thus they hold that even as small a mark as a kotso shel yod , the serif of the Hebrew letter yod , the smallest letter, or decorative markings, or repeated words, were put there by God to teach scores of lessons. This is regardless of whether that yod appears in the phrase “I am the LORD thy God” or whether it appears in “And God spoke unto Moses saying” . In a similar vein, Rabbi Akiva , is said to have learned a new law from every et in the Torah the particleet is meaningless by itself, and serves only to mark the direct object. In other words, the Orthodox belief is that even apparently contextual text such as “And God spoke unto Moses saying …” is no less holy and sacred than the actual statement.
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High And Late Middle Ages
In the West, from the 11th century onward, some older cathedral schools . Previously, higher education had been the domain of Christian or , led by and . Evidence of such schools dates back to the 6th century CE. These new universities expanded the curriculum to include academic programs for clerics, lawyers, civil servants, and physicians. The university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the setting.
Accompanying the rise of the “new towns” throughout Europe, were founded, bringing the out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. The two principal mendicant movements were the and the , founded by and , respectively. Both orders made significant contributions to the development of the great universities of Europe. Another new order was the, whose large isolated monasteries spearheaded the settlement of former wilderness areas. In this period, church building and ecclesiastical architecture reached new heights, culminating in the orders of and and the building of the great European cathedrals.
Beginning around 1184, following the crusade against heresy, various institutions, broadly referred to as the , were established with the aim of suppressing and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity through and prosecution.
When Was The Last Year Of Jubilee
Chronology of Jubilees. Each 50th year may have been specially celebrated in ancient Israel. The last jubilee year may have been officially celebrated as late as the year 121 BCE. Sabbatical years. In the late Second-Temple Era, the custom of letting the land rest in each 7th year was an important tenet of Jewish law.
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Hebrew Bible Vs Torah
The main difference between the Hebrew Bible and Torah is that the Hebrew bible is the first sacred book of the Jewish people. It is the collection of old writings or scriptures, including the Torah. And Torah is one of the important sections of the Hebrew bible, which has a further five divisions within it.
The Hebrew Bible is counted in as the main holy scriptures of the jews, and it is comparable to the Bible. Hebrew Bible is a set of a total of twenty-four books, all of which are antique. Hebrew Bible is structured into three important divisions that are the Torah or sayings, the Neviim, or the messengers, and the Ketuvim or scribbles.
The Torah is one of the sections of the Hebrew Bible, and it is again divided into five divisions. The Torah contains Numbers, Exodus, Leviticus, Genesis, and Deuteronomy. These five divisions are customarily credited to Moses. Sayings in Torah are an important part of Jewish peoples culture.
Production And Use Of A Torah Scroll
Manuscript Torah scrolls are still scribed and used for ritual purposes this is called a Sefer Torah . They are written using a painstakingly careful method by highly qualified scribes. It is believed that every word, or marking, has divine meaning and that not one part may be inadvertently changed lest it lead to error. The fidelity of the Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered paramount, down to the last letter: translations or transcriptions are frowned upon for formal service use, and transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error of a single letter, ornamentation, or symbol of the 304,805 stylized letters that make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use, hence a special skill is required and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check.
According to Jewish law, a sefer Torah is a copy of the formal Hebrew text handwritten on gevil or klaf by using a quill dipped in ink. Written entirely in Hebrew, a sefer Torah contains 304,805 letters, all of which must be duplicated precisely by a trained sofer , an effort that may take as long as approximately one and a half years. Most modern Sifrei Torah are written with forty-two lines of text per column , and very strict rules about the position and appearance of the Hebrew letters are observed. See for example the Mishnah Berurah on the subject. Any of several Hebrew scripts may be used, most of which are fairly ornate and exacting.
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How Is The Hebrew Bible Different From The Christian Old Testament
I’ve encountered many Bible believing tourists in my over 17 years living in Israel. This happens often in bookshops.
I once encountered a tourist who wanted to buy a Bible from the Holy Land and after learning I was a believer and had lived here for many years, he began to ask my opinion.
‘Which Bible has a real “holy land” feel?’ he asked.
‘Well, why not a Hebrew Bible, which was the Bible which our Lord Jesus made reference to in Luke 24: 44-45?’ I answered.
‘A Hebrew Bible? What is that?’ he asked.
Then I proceeded to explain that a Hebrew Bible contains the exact equivalent to what Protestant Christians call the ‘Old Testament’. I also explained that this is the Bible that observant Jews accept as the Word of God today. They call it in Hebrew, the TANAK, which is an abbreviation taking the first letter from each of the following words for: Torah , Nevi’im and Ketuvim .
This interested my tourist friend very much. ‘Can you recommend one?’ he asked.
Then, I gave him a very nice edition to look at called The Jerusalem Bible published by Koren Publishers here in Jerusalem.
‘This is a Hebrew Bible, but I do need to point out that while this Bible has the same books that are found in the King James Version and all other Protestant Bible versions, you will note that the design is different,’ I said.
‘Wow. This is different!’ he exclaimed. ‘Yes, it is. But, in fact, this is the Bible that our Lord Jesus referred to in Luke 24:44-45.
Who Is A Jew
According to , a Jew is anyone who was either born of a Jewish mother or who in accordance with . and the larger denominations of worldwide accept the child as Jewish if one of the parents is Jewish, if the parents raise the child with a Jewish identity, but not the smaller regional branches. All mainstream forms of Judaism today are open to sincere converts, although conversion has traditionally been discouraged since the time of the Talmud. The conversion process is evaluated by an authority, and the convert is examined on his or her sincerity and knowledge. Converts are called “ben Abraham” or “bat Abraham”, . Conversions have on occasion been overturned. In 2008, Israel’s highest religious court invalidated the conversion of 40,000 Jews, mostly from Russian immigrant families, even though they had been approved by an Orthodox rabbi.
believes that Jewish identity can only be transmitted by patrilineal descent. Although a minority of modern Karaites believe that Jewish identity requires that both parents be Jewish, and not only the father. They argue that only patrilineal descent can transmit Jewish identity on the grounds that all descent in the Torah went according to the male line.
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