Who Is A Jew
Jews believe that a Jew is someone who is the child of a Jewish mother although some groups also accept children of Jewish fathers as Jewish. A Jew traditionally can’t lose the technical ‘status’ of being a Jew by adopting another faith, but they do lose the religious element of their Jewish identity.
Someone who isn’t born a Jew can convert to Judaism, but it is not easy to do so.
Judaism Is A Family Faith
Judaism is very much a family faith and the ceremonies start early, when a Jewish boy baby is circumcised at eight days old, following the instructions that God gave to Abraham around 4,000 years ago.
Many Jewish religious customs revolve around the home. One example is the Sabbath meal, when families join together to welcome in the special day.
How Old Is The First Known Bible
Scholars have believed the Hebrew Bible in its standard form first came about some 2,000 years ago, but never had physical proof, until now, according to the study. Previously the oldest known fragments of the modern biblical text dated back to the 8th century.
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How The Books Of The New Testament Were Determined
The early church accepted the New Testament books almost as soon as they were written. Its already been mentioned that the writers were friends of Jesus or his immediate followers, men to whom Jesus had entrusted the leadership of the early church. The Gospel writers Matthew and John were some of Jesus’ closest followers. Mark and Luke were companions of the apostles, having access to the apostles’ account of Jesus’ life.
The other New Testament writers had immediate access to Jesus as well: James and Jude were half-brothers of Jesus who initially did not believe in him. Peter was one of the 12 apostles. Paul started out as a violent opponent of Christianity and a member of the religious ruling class, but he became an ardent follower of Jesus, convinced that Jesus rose from the dead.
The reports in the New Testament books lined up with what thousands of eyewitnesses had seen for themselves.
When other books were written hundreds of years later, it wasn’t difficult for the church to spot them as forgeries. For example, the Gospel of Judas was written by the Gnostic sect, around 130-170 A.D., long after Judas’ death. The Gospel of Thomas, written around 140 A.D., is another example of a counterfeit writing erroneously bearing an apostles’ name. These and other Gnostic gospels conflicted with the known teachings of Jesus and the Old Testament, and often contained numerous historical and geographical errors.7
Considerations For A New Version
The newly crowned King James convened the Hampton Court Conference in 1604. That gathering proposed a new English version in response to the perceived problems of earlier translations as detected by the Puritan faction of the Church of England. Here are three examples of problems the Puritans perceived with the Bishops and Great Bibles:
First, Galatians iv. 25 . The Greek word susoichei is not well translated as now it is, bordereth neither expressing the force of the word, nor the apostle’s sense, nor the situation of the place. Secondly, psalm cv. 28 , ‘They were not obedient ‘ the original being, ‘They were not disobedient.’ Thirdly, psalm cvi. 30 , ‘Then stood up Phinees and prayed,’ the Hebrew hath, ‘executed judgment.’
The committees started work towards the end of 1604. King James VI and I, on 22 July 1604, sent a letter to Archbishop Bancroft asking him to contact all English churchmen requesting that they make donations to his project.
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But How Do Jews Know This About God
They don’t know it, they believe it, which is different.
However, many religious people often talk about God in a way that sounds as if they know about God in the same way that they know what they had for breakfast.
- For instance, religious people often say they are quite certain about God – by which they mean that they have an inner certainty.
- And many people have experiences that they believe were times when they were in touch with God.
The best evidence for what God is like comes from what the Bible says, and from particular individuals’ experiences of God.
Legacy And Impact Of The Bible
The sheer diversity of literature in the Bible is one of the secrets of its continuing popularity through the centuries. There is something for all moods and many different cultures. Its message is not buried in religious jargon only accessible to either believers or scholars, but reflects the issues that people struggle with in daily life. Despite their different emphases, all its authors shared the conviction that this world and its affairs are not just a haphazard sequence of random coincidences, but are the forum of God’s activity – a God who is not remote or unknowable, but a personal being who can be known by ordinary people.
Melvyn Bragg believes the King James version of the Bible, first published in 1611, has had a profound effect on human history over the last 400 years.
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Scriptures Authors: Human And Divine
Just as we humans participate in Gods ongoing creation through procreation, we also had a part in creating the Scriptures. God and his people have always worked side by side. God chose Mary to bear Jesus. The prophets brought Gods message to Israel. Jesus sent the Apostles on a mission to preach the Gospel to the whole world. The message that God wants conveyed is contained in the Scriptures, but the way in which it is conveyed was left up to the specific authors.
Therefore, it is very true to say that God is the author of the Scriptures, but it is also true that the human authors are the authors of the various books of the Bible. For example, St. Paul is the author of the First Letter to the Corinthians. God is also its author. Each Gospel has a different flavor based on the personality and goals of its human author.
The Bible is the written account of the human experience with God. Many parts of the Bible are oral tradition that was written down. Most people were illiterate and relied much more on their memories to pass on traditions and stories. Oral tradition was the norm long before writing and reading was popular.
Different books have different histories. For example, Genesis likely involved many sources passed down over hundreds of years. Pauls first letter to the Corinthians has one human author and was written within 30 years of Jesus death and resurrection.
Historians Confirm What The Bible Says About Jesus
Not only do we have well-preserved copies of the original manuscripts, we also have testimony from both Jewish and Roman historians.
The gospels report that Jesus of Nazareth performed many miracles, was executed by the Romans, and rose from the dead. Numerous ancient historians back the Bible’s account of the life of Jesus and his followers:
Cornelius Tacitus , an historian of first-century Rome, is considered one of the most accurate historians of the ancient world.8 An excerpt from Tacitus tells us that the Roman emperor Nero “inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class…called Christians. …Christus , from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus….”9
Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian , wrote about Jesus in his Jewish Antiquities. From Josephus, “we learn that Jesus was a wise man who did surprising feats, taught many, won over followers from among Jews and Greeks, was believed to be the Messiah, was accused by the Jewish leaders, was condemned to be crucified by Pilate, and was considered to be resurrected.”10
Suetonius, Pliny the Younger, and Thallus also wrote about Christian worship and persecution that is consistent with New Testament accounts.
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More Versions And Translations
Many versions of the Bible exist now. Scholars have gone back to old manuscripts to produce more exact translations. New versions have been produced with more contemporary styles of language. The Bible has now been translated into more than 2,500 languages so that billions of people around the world can read it in their mother tongue. There are multiple versions online and downloadable audio versions. There is even an Emoji Bible. But whatever the format, the Bible remains the most popular book ever produced.
The History Of The New Testament
The last 27 books of the Bible, known as the New Testament, were written over a much shorter period by fewer people. The first was begun around 50AD the last finished in 90AD. Consensus was quickly reached that the four Gospels that we have now should be the only official ones. By the 2nd century, the Gospels, the book of Acts and Pauls 13 letters were being circulated around Christian churches. Gradually other writings were considered for inclusion in the list of scriptures.
Thousands of New Testament manuscripts still exist. The oldest fragments date back to 130AD the oldest complete scripts are from 350AD.
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Heres Why The Gospels Were Written
In the early years after Jesus’ death and resurrection there was no apparent need for written biographies about Jesus.Those living in the Jerusalem region were witnesses of Jesus and well aware of his ministry.6
However, when news of Jesus spread beyond Jerusalem, and the eyewitnesses were no longer readily accessible, there was a need for written accounts to educate others about Jesus’ life and ministry.
If you would like to know more about Jesus, this article will give you a good summary of his life: Why Jesus is God.
What Is The Chronological Order Of The Books Of The Bible
Because the date of writing of many books of the Bible is either unknown or difficult to state with certainty, it’s difficult to compile a list of the books of the Bible in chronological order. Below we have compiled a list of the books of the Bible in the order that they appear in standard translations and noted next to their names commonly accepted dates for when they were written.
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When Was The New Testament Compiled
To compile intimates an intentional time and place in which various documents or fragments are united into one. The New Testament nor the Old came about this way. Rather, the books of the New Testament were received by the Church as Gods Word by numerous quantitative and qualitative factors.1 Chapter one of the Westminster Confession of Faith summarizes those factors in its article 5 :
We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the church to a high and reverent esteem of the Holy Scripture. And the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole , the full discovery it makes of the only way of mans salvation, the many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God: yet notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof, is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.
The History Of The English Bible
One way to think about the history of the English Bible is to consider prominent movements and individuals who led to putting the Bible in the hands of the people. The history of the English Bible begins in, where else England. Dr. John Wycliffe was the priest at Saint Marys at Oxford. The very epitome of a pastor-scholar, Wycliffe not only wanted the Bible translated into the vernacular of the people he served but desired to see the Word of God preached in English throughout the Realm. So, Wycliffe published dozens of copies of the Bible in English. These Bibles were taken by his band of preachers, called Lollards, and they exposited the truths of the Word of God. This was the beginning of the English Reformation and was the precursor to John Hus and, then, Martin Luther.
The story of how the Bible was written cannot be recalled without the most important fact of all: why the Bible was written. As always, the Word of God attests to its own purpose:
But these things are written that ye might believe, that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God and that in believing ye might have life through his Name. .
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What Happened During The 400 Years Of Silence In The Bible
It is known by some members of the Protestant community as the 400 Silent Years because it was a span where no new prophets were raised and God revealed nothing new to his people. Many of the deuterocanonical books, accepted as scripture by Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, were written during this time.
When Were The Bible Books Of Poetry And History Written In The Old Testament
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, and Lamentations are considered to be books of poetry in the Bible. Remembering that poetry does not have to rhyme allows the reader to read these books as the writer may have spoken the words.
Researchers say the story of Job is presumed to date back to the time of Abraham, and most likely passed down in oral form until someone put the words into writing.
In the book of Psalms, David is listed as the author. Yet, many people contributed to writing the Psalms. These contributions were given in different time periods. The Bible tells that the book of Psalms was gathered together by temple workers after the exile, probably in the third century B.C.
One Scripture that can bring comfort is Psalm 108: 3-4.
The Song of Solomon was probably written during the 10th century B.C. Often referred to as a love song, the author of this book in the Bible is uncertain, yet listed as possibly Solomon.
You may wonder why Lamentations is listed as a book of poetry. Possibly written by Jeremiah sometime between 586 and 516 B.C., the book is Jeremiahs account of devastation in his homeland. Amidst the turmoil and sadness of the writing, the author reminds the reader that hope is found in God.
The historical books of the Bible include Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings.
1 Samuel and 2 Samuel were written by an unknown author, sometimes after the division of Israel into northern and southern kingdoms, probably around 930 B.C.
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New Adam / Second Adam / Last Adam
Just as in Adam all of us died, so too in Christ all of us will be brought to life.
Just as the Gospel of John proclaims the universal relevance of the Incarnation of Jesus as Logos, the Pauline view emphasizes the cosmic view that his birth, Crucifixion and Resurrection brought forth a new man and a new world. Paul’s eschatological view of Jesus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam. Unlike Adam, the new man born in Jesus obeys God and ushers in a world of morality and salvation.
In the Pauline view, Adam is positioned as the first man and Jesus as the second and last Adam /1_Corinthians#15:45″ rel=”nofollow”> 1 Corinthians 15:45), the first having corrupted himself by his disobedience, also infected humanity and left it with a curse as inheritance. The birth of Jesus, on the other hand, counterbalanced the fall of Adam, bringing forth redemption and repairing the damage done by Adam.
The theme is reiterated by Paul, in Romans 5:18-21, when he states:
In the 2nd century Church FatherIrenaeus continued this tradition and stated: “so that what we had lost in Adam – namely to be according to the image and likeness of God- that we might recover in Christ Jesus.” Irenaeus also used the analogy of “second Adam and second Eve” and suggested the Virgin Mary as the “second Eve” who had set a path of obedience for the second Adam from the Annunciation to Calvary.
When Was The Hebrew Bible Written
Earlier than previously thought, say Tel Aviv University researchers
Was the Hebrew Bible written earlier than previously thought? Thats what a 2016 study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests. The study was led by Tel Aviv University doctoral students Shira Faigenbaum-Golovina, Arie Shausa and Barak Sober.
The TAU researchers analyzed multi-spectral images of 16 Hebrew inscriptions, which were written in ink on ostraca , using a computer software program they developed. The ostraca, which date to 600 B.C.E., according to the researchers, were excavated from the Judahite fortress at Arad in southern Israel.
When was the Hebrew Bible written? Ostraca with Hebrew inscriptions excavated from the Iron Age fortress at Arad in Israel may provide clues, say researchers from Tel Aviv University.
The researchers say they were able to identify at least six different handwriting styles on the inscriptions, which contained instructions for the movement of troops and lists of food expenses. A TAU press release notes that the tone and nature of the commands precluded the role of professional scribes.
The results indicate that in this remote fort, literacy had spread throughout the military hierarchy, down to the quartermaster and probably even below that rank, state Faigenbaum-Golovina, Shausa and Sober in their paper.
So when was the Hebrew Bible written? What does literacy in the Iron Age have to do with it?
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