Determining The New Month In The Mishnaic Period
The Tanakh contains several commandments related to the keeping of the calendar and the lunar cycle, and records changes that have taken place to the Hebrew calendar. Numbers 10:10 stresses the importance in Israelite religious observance of the new month : “… in your new moons, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt-offerings…” Similarly in Numbers 28:11. “The beginning of the month” meant the appearance of a new moon, and in Exodus 12:2. “This month is to you”.
According to the Mishnah and Tosefta, in the Maccabean, Herodian, and Mishnaic periods, new months were determined by the sighting of a new crescent, with two eyewitnesses required to testify to the Sanhedrin to having seen the new lunar crescent at sunset. The practice in the time of Gamaliel II was for witnesses to select the appearance of the moon from a collection of drawings that depicted the crescent in a variety of orientations, only a few of which could be valid in any given month. These observations were compared against calculations.
Implications For Jewish Ritual
Although the molad of Tishrei is the only molad moment that is not ritually announced, it is actually the only one that is relevant to the Hebrew calendar, for it determines the provisional date of Rosh Hashanah, subject to the Rosh Hashanah postponement rules. The other monthly molad moments are announced for mystical reasons. With the moladot on average almost 100 minutes late, this means that the molad of Tishrei lands one day later than it ought to in ÷ = 5 of 72 years or nearly 7% of years.
Therefore, the seemingly small drift of the moladot is already significant enough to affect the date of Rosh Hashanah, which then cascades to many other dates in the calendar year and sometimes, due to the Rosh Hashanah postponement rules, also interacts with the dates of the prior or next year. The molad drift could be corrected by using a progressively shorter molad interval that corresponds to the actual mean lunar conjunction interval at the original molad reference meridian. Furthermore, the molad interval determines the calendar mean year, so using a progressively shorter molad interval would help correct the excessive length of the Hebrew calendar mean year, as well as helping it to “hold onto” the northward equinox for the maximum duration.
Abib Occurs At The Spring Equinox
In order to identify when the month of Abib occurs, we are going to look up the definition of Abib in the Strongs Concordance which states,
To be tender green, that is a young ear of grain hence the name of the month Abib or Nisan: Abib, ear, green ears of corn.
Now ask yourself, when do young tender green ears of grain appear?
Naturally, the same time of year when nature comes back to life after a cold winter. In the spring, the time of the vernal equinox when day and night are approximately equal in duration across the planet. The time when the weather begins to warm, plants bloom, and Gods creatures come out of their homes.
The Websters Dictionary 1828 also helps us by explaining,
Abib begins at the spring equinox, and answers to the latter part of March and beginning of April. Its name is derived from the full growth of wheat in Egypt, which took place anciently, as it does now, at that season.
So we now know, the first month of the year on Gods Calendar is the month of Abib. The month of Abib begins with the arrival of the spring equinox. The spring equinox occurs this year on March 20th, so .
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What Month Is The Beginning Of The Year
is named after the Roman god Janus. In our modern-day Gregorian calendar, and its predecessor, the Julian calendar, is the first month of the year. It has 31 days, and the first day of the month is known as New Years Day.
Etymology Of The Name Abib
The name Abib is the same as the noun , which refers to freshly budded barley, which in turn signified the beginning of spring and thus the agricultural year:
The unused verb probably meant to be fresh or bright . The rare noun probably means freshness or fresh green, and the much more common noun refers to barley, but the barley still in the green hull, prior to its processing into anything edible. Abib was also the name of the first month of the agricultural year.
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Past Methods Of Numbering Years
Before the adoption of the current Anno Mundi year numbering system, other systems were used. In early times, the years were counted from some significant historic event such as the Exodus. During the period of the monarchy, it was the widespread practice in western Asia to use era year numbers according to the accession year of the monarch of the country involved. This practice was followed by the united kingdom of Israel, kingdom of Judah, kingdom of Israel, Persia, and others. Besides, the author of Kings coordinated dates in the two kingdoms by giving the accession year of a monarch in terms of the year of the monarch of the other kingdom, though some commentators note that these dates do not always synchronise. Other era dating systems have been used at other times. For example, Jewish communities in the Babylonian diaspora counted the years from the first deportation from Israel, that of Jehoiachin in 597 BCE. The era year was then called “year of the captivity of Jehoiachin”.
During the Hellenistic Maccabean period, Seleucid era counting was used, at least in Land of Israel . The Books of the Maccabees used Seleucid era dating exclusively, as did Josephus writing in the Roman period. From the 1st-10th centuries, the center of world Judaism was in the Middle East , and Jews in these regions also used Seleucid era dating, which they called the “Era of Contracts “. The Talmud states:
Calendar Observance In Auschwitz
While imprisoned in Auschwitz, Jews made every effort to observe Jewish tradition in the camps, despite the monumental dangers in doing so. The Hebrew calendar, which is a tradition with great importance to Jewish practice and rituals was particularly dangerous since no tools of telling of time, such as watches and calendars were permitted in the camps. The keeping of a Hebrew calendar was a rarity amongst prisoners and there are only two known surviving calendars that were made in Auschwitz, both of which were made by women. Before this, the tradition of making a Hebrew calendar was greatly assumed to be the job of a man in Jewish society.
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Lord Or Yhvh Jesus Or Yeshua Sunday Or Sabbath Church Or Synagogue Gentile Or Israel Clean Or Unclean Law Or Grace 2000 Years After The Messiah Wherever We Live Whether It’s Sri Lanka Or Any Other Part Of The World All Of Us Require To Learn How To Do Bible Things In Bible Ways
Happy New Year!!!! Biblically speaking of course.Even though January 1st is celebrated as the beginning of the year over the world, as Christians, we need to consider that the Biblical New Year is far more important to us, than a day that was picked by the Romans.
1st of January and the beginning of the standard western/christian calendar
The month of January is named after an ancient Roman god named Janus/Ianus, who was the Roman god of doorways & archways, depicted having two faces, as the Romans believed he looked at the future as well as the past. As far back as 153BC, Roman consuls came to power on January 1st. In 45BC, when Julius Caesar introduced the Julian Calendar, January 1st became the official new year of the Roman Empire which has continued to be so, for more than 2000 years.
This ancient Julian Calendar which went through a few refinements in the year 1582 by Roman Catholic Pope Gregory XIII, is now known as the Gregorian Calendar. January 1st, remains from more than 2000 years ago, as the beginning of the Roman Year, a creation of the Roman Empire.
What is Abib?In the book of Exodus, as Moses brought about the 7th Plague which was Hail, we read the following
Abib barley discovered in the land of Israel in the end of March 2014
But how does one go about uncovering the beginning of the biblical Year on his/her own?
The Sliver of the New Moon was sighted in Israel around 7.30pm on March 31st
King James Bible Dictionary
An ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the seventh of the civil year. It began about the time of the vernal equinox, on 21st March. It was called Nisan, after the Captivity . On the fifteenth day of the month, harvest was begun by gathering a sheaf of barley, which was offered unto the Lord on the sixteenth .
green fruit ears of corn
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The Fixing Of The Calendar
Between 70 and 1178 CE, the observation-based calendar was gradually replaced by a mathematically calculated one.
The Talmuds indicate at least the beginnings of a transition from a purely empirical to a computed calendar. Samuel of Nehardea stated that he could determine the dates of the holidays by calculation rather than observation. According to a statement attributed to Yose , Purim could not fall on a Sabbath nor a Monday, lest Yom Kippur fall on a Friday or a Sunday. This indicates that, by the time of the redaction of the Jerusalem Talmud , there were a fixed number of days in all months from Adar to Elul, also implying that the extra month was already a second Adar added before the regular Adar. Elsewhere, Shimon ben Pazi is reported to have counseled “those who make the computations” not to set Rosh Hashana or Hoshana Rabbah on Shabbat. This indicates that there was a group who “made computations” and controlled, to some extent, the day of the week on which Rosh Hashana would fall.
In 921, Aaron ben Meïr proposed changes to the calendar. Though the proposals were rejected, they indicate that all of the rules of the modern calendar were in place before that date. In 1000, the Muslim chronologist al-Biruni described all of the modern rules of the Hebrew calendar, except that he specified three different epochs used by various Jewish communities being one, two, or three years later than the modern epoch.
A Summary Of Passover
God instructed the Israelites to take the unblemished lamb they obtained on the tenth of the month, and sacrifice it at even on the fourteenth day of Abib. That begins the LORDs passover, .
The Israelites were to take the blood from the lamb, and place it over the lintel and on the two side posts of the door of their homes and not leave until morning, . This was done in obedience to God, and prevented the destroyer from entering their home and killing their firstborn.
Though the evening of the fourteenth of Abib was passover, it would transition into the night which began the fifteenth of Abib.
In that night, the Israelites were to eat the lamb they sacrificed with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, this was to be a seven-day feast, .
This was the same night the destroyer came through the land of Egypt to kill the firstborn of every man and beast. However, the destroyer could not harm those who sacrificed the passover lamb, those who placed the blood over and on the side posts of their door.
God sent the Ten Plagues on Egypt in order to make it known to the Egyptians, and through them, the entire world that He is the One True God. The non-existent Egyptian gods could not re-produce the plagues, nor could they prevent them.
This tenth and final plague God sent on Egypt was so severe, Pharaoh demanded Moses and the Israelites leave them in the middle of the night. Finally releasing the Israelites from bondage, .
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The Biblical Feast Dates/appointed Times Of Yhvh For The Year 2014
1. Passover begins on the eve/sundown of April 13 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 14 2. 1st Day of Unleavened Bread begins on the eve/sundown of April 14 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 15 3. First Fruits begins on the eve/sundown of April 19 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 20th4. 7th Day of Unleavened Bread begins on the eve/sundown of April 20 and ends on the eve/sundown of April 21 5. Shavuot/Pentecost begins on the eve/sundown of June 7 and ends on the eve/sundown of June 8
The final 3 Biblical Feasts, which are Trumpets, Atonement & Tabernacles will be known only when we sight the 7th New Moon.
Questions are often raised regarding the Biblical Day, Week, Month & Year, while some even regard it worthless. The internationally accepted calendar system which is in use today, is not the same as the Biblical Calendar. When God created the Sun and the Moon, it was for the benefit of His creation to know His Appointed times and also the divisions of days and years as He set it to be.
Let us examine the Scriptures and find out the Day/Week/Month/Year which is Biblically accurate, and study the differences and similarities of the Standard Gregorian Calendar which is in use today, to the Biblical Calendar instituted by God.
Synodic Month The Molad Interval
A “new moon” is the moment at which the sun and moon are aligned horizontally with respect to a north-south line . The period between two new moons is a synodic month. The actual length of a synodic month varies from about 29 days 6 hours and 30 minutes to about 29 days and 20 hours , a variation range of about 13 hours and 30 minutes. Accordingly, for convenience, a long-term average length, identical to the mean synodic month of ancient times is used. The molad interval is 765433 25920 }} days, or 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 “parts” , and is the same value determined by the Babylonians in their System B about 300 BCE and was adopted by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus in the 2nd century BCE and by the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy in the Almagest four centuries later . Its remarkable accuracy is thought to have been achieved using records of lunar eclipses from the 8th to 5th centuries BCE.
Furthermore, the discrepancy between the molad interval and the mean synodic month is accumulating at an accelerating rate, since the mean synodic month is progressively shortening due to gravitational tidal effects. Measured on a strictly uniform time scale, such as that provided by an atomic clock, the mean synodic month is becoming gradually longer, but since the tides slow Earth’s rotation rate even more, the mean synodic month is becoming gradually shorter in terms of mean solar time.
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Basic Chronology In The Biblical Period
From very early times, the Babylonian calendar was in wide use by the countries of the Near East. The structure, which was also used by the Israelites, was based on lunar months with the intercalation of an additional month to bring the cycle closer to the solar cycle, although there is no mention of this additional month anywhere in the Hebrew Bible.
Passover Is Biblical Easter Is Babylonian Exodus 1: 1
In Exodus 12, we are privy to the specific instructions given by YeHoVaH to Moses for Israels preparation to leave Egypt and serve Him. YeHoVaH establishes a calendar for the Children of Israel that includes months with timelines for future Holy Days, Events, Memorials, Ceremonies, and Celebrations for the newly formed Nation. That first month would be known as the month of Abib.
Technically speaking, it would be Biblically inaccurate to call the calendar given to Israel, the Hebrew calendar or Jewish Calendar. It would be Biblically accurate to call the calendar Israels Calendar because it was designated by YeHoVaH for the new Nation of Israel before they left Egypt. All of Israel at the time were Hebrew, but not all Hebrews were Israelites, nor were all Hebrews in Egypt.
PASSOVER NOT EASTER The beginning of the New Year would always be connected to deliverance from Egypt, with the first day of the New Moon, the Passover, and the seven days of unleavened bread. Every New Year, when the congregation of Israel commemorated the celebration of Passover, they would be reminded of their deliverance from captivity and the freedom brought about by the Mighty One of Israel.
In Chapter 12 of Exodus, the new Nation of Israel is in the moment of memorializing a historical event and the inauguration of Israels Calendar.
What is Passover? The Passover is the first of all the annual Feasts, and historically and religiously, it is the most important of all.
The First Month Is Abib
Turn your Bible with me to,
Deuteronomy 16:1Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the LORD thy God: for in the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.
God explained, Abib was the month passover occurred, and Abib was the month God freed the Israelites from their long Egyptian bondage.
Let us continue.
Exodus 12:2This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
Between Deuteronomy 16:1 and Exodus 12:2, we now know the Hebrew month of Abib became the first month of the year to the Israelites, the same month of passover.