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Who Is King David In The Bible

Maacah Haggith Abital And Eglah Davids Wives

Who Is King David? | The Bible

Davids fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh wives are Maacah, Haggith, Abital and Eglah. They are listed twice in Scripture. The first time they are mentioned is in 2 Samuel 3:2-5 and 1 Chronicles 3:1-3 repeats the same information.

Sons were born to David at Hebron: his firstborn was Amnon, by Ahinoam the Jezreelitess and his second, Chileab, by Abigail the widow of Nabal the Carmelite and the third, Absalom the son of Maacah, the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur and the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith and the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital and the sixth, Ithream, by Davids wife Eglah. These were born to David at Hebron. 2 Samuel 3:2-5

It is important to notice that in this passage the numbers refer to the sons born to David. We must remember that Davids first wife, Michal, did not give birth to any children.

David’s Relationship With God

Nick Page, author of The Bible Book and The Tabloid Bible, writes:

Nevertheless he seems to speak as directly as before, if not more so. The way that David talks about God, if we take the Psalms of David as representative of his thought, is closer and much more personal than in previous times.

Although Abraham and Moses both argued with God, David pleads with God. He cajoles Him, he upbraids Him for not doing things.

The Psalms really are like a spiritual diary. There’s a sense of closeness with God, the ability to question Him, to ask what’s going on and to have the faith that He’ll sort it out. And to have a very kind of personal relationship with God, whilst at the same time God is certainly not present in the same way that He was in the time of Moses.

David was a great king – the greatest king in Israel’s history – despite what he did rather than because of what he did. His greatness is shown through his humanity, through his weakness, through his vulnerability. But for his willingness that even though he was a king, to come before God, just as a human being, and say “sorry”.

Further Reading On David

The Bible portrays the life and achievements of David in 1 Samuel 16 through 2 Samuel 5, 2 Samuel 19-20, 1 Kings 1-2, and 1 Chronicles 10-29. The chapter on King David in Harry Meyer Orlinsky, Ancient Israel , is recommended. See also Martin North, The History of Israel John Bright, A History of Israel and Mortimer J. Cohen, “David the King,” in Simon Noveck, ed., Great Jewish Personalities in Ancient and Medieval Times .

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David Was A Giant Slayer

Perhaps Davids biggest claim to fame was his legendary showdown with the Philistine giant, Goliath. The Israelite and Philistine armies lined up on opposing hills, Goliath taunted the Israelites and challenged them to decide the battle with a duel: him against one of them .

Nobody wanted to take him up on the offer. But David came to the Israelite camp to play music for Saul, and he heard Goliaths taunts. He also overheard the Israelites talking about what Saul would give to the person who defeated Goliath .

Goliath wasnt just taunting the Israelites. He was defying God himself on Gods own turf. Every day Israel declined Goliaths challenge, they conceded that their God was no match for the gods of the Philistines. David wasnt going to let this go on any longer. After convincing Saul to let him challenge Goliath, David chose five stones and went out to meet him.

Goliath mocked him and cursed him. And then David famously replied:

David killed Goliath with a single stone, hurled from his sling. He beheaded Goliath and took his weapons as trophies.

The story of David and Goliath has been told so many times through literature and art that David, Goliath, and their confrontation have all become cliched symbols for underdogs, brutal antagonists, and stories of overcoming impossible odds.

David Is Anointed As King

The Many Faces of King David

Samuel followed the instructions of the LORD despite his fears. He came to the home of Jesse. He saw his son Eliab. Based on his appearance, he thought surely this is the LORDs choice.

But the LORD said to Samuel, Do not look at his appearance or at the height of his stature, because I have rejected him for God sees not as man sees, for man looks at the outward appearance, but the LORD looks at the heart.

After inquiring, Samuel finds out that Jesse has one more son, his youngest, who is tending sheep.

Then Samuel said to Jesse, Send and bring him for we will not sit down until he comes here. So he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, with beautiful eyes, and a handsome appearance. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him for this is he.

Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers and the Spirit of the LORD came mightily upon David from that day forward. And Samuel arose and went to Ramah.

According to Charles R. Swindoll, Josephus, the historian, says, Samuel the aged whispered in his ear the meaning of the symbol, You will be the next king.

David was anointed as king while Saul was still on the throne.

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Narrative In The Quran

David’s narrative in the Quran, in many respects, parallels that given in the Bible. He is named a prophet and also a messenger , David is included in lists of those who received revelation or guidance from God. In both lists his name appears next to that of his son Solomon. Elsewhere, the Quran explains that God gave to both of them the gifts of “sound judgment” and “knowledge” . Yet the Quran also ascribes to David merits that distinguish him from Solomon: David killed Goliath and received a divine revelation named “the Psalms” , presumably a reference to the Psalms or the Psalter . The mountains and the birds praised God along with David . God made David a “vicegerent” , a title that the Quran otherwise gives only to Adam . This title suggests that, according to the Quran, David was something more than a messenger: he was a divinely guided leader who established God’s rule on Earth. This role is also suggested by 2:251: “God gave him authority and wisdom and taught him what He willed. If God did not drive back some people by others, the earth would become corrupt.”

David Was Israels Greatest King

Despite being anointed to rule Gods people, David had a long and arduous path to kingship. Even after Saul died in combat, those loyal to him werent just going to hand over the kingdom to David. Remember, Saul was anointed, too. And David had been living with and fighting for the Philistinesthe Israelites sworn enemies.

When Saul died, the tribe of Judah anointed David as their king , but Abner son of Ner, the commander of Sauls army, made Sauls son Ish-bosheth king over all Israel. So there were two kings and two kingdoms: Ish-bosheth became the second king of Israel, and David ruled Judah.

Unfortunately for Ish-bosheth, his reign was short-lived. And while he and Abner were at war with David the whole time he was in power, Ish-bosheth didnt die by Davids hand.

Both Ish-bosheth and Abner were murdered. Abner was murdered out of revenge, and David cursed his killers and mourned his death. Ish-bosheth was murdered by Israelites who seemed to be trying to earn Davids favor. When they came to David with their good news, he had them executed for their crime.

With Sauls family out of the picture, Israels elders met with David and anointed him king over all of Israel when he was thirty years old .

During Sauls reign, Jerusalem was captured, and the Ark of the Covenant was in Judah. When David became king, he retook the fortress of Zion , conquered Jerusalem, and returned the Ark to the city.

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He Wrote And Spoke Many Proverbs

The of Kings claims Solomon spoke three thousand proverbs . His wisdom explored just about every topic, and rulers from all nations came to Israel to hear his proverbs:

He spoke about plant life, from the cedar of Lebanon to the hyssop that grows out of walls. He also spoke about animals and birds, reptiles and fish. From all nations people came to listen to Solomons wisdom, sent by all the kings of the world, who had heard of his wisdom. 1 Kings 4:3334

Hundreds of Solomons proverbs are preserved in the Bibles Book of Proverbs alongside some of his poems and the wisdom of others. Some of them are instructions, and others are simply observations, but together they promote the pursuit of wisdom, justice, and righteousness.

Solomons proverbs used a variety of styles to convey meaning, but in the Book of Proverbs, his most common sayings were two line reflections that compared or contrasted two things , or where the second line is a consequence of the first.

Here are a couple of examples.

Comparison

Davids Government Judahite Cities

David, the Bible’s First Real Hero

If a united monarchy existed in the 10th century BC, as described in the Bible, one might expect to find evidence of a common political administration throughout the kingdom. Some archaeologists claim to have found such evidence of a complex society in the archaeological remains at several sites.

From 2007-2013, Yosef Garfinkel and Saar Ganor conducted excavations at Khirbet Qeiyafa, a fortress dating to the time of King David. It is located 30 km southwest of Jerusalem, on the summit of a hill that is strategically located within the kingdom of Judah and on the road from Philistia to Jerusalem. The excavators have identified it as biblical Shaarayim because of its two gates, and claim that there is clear evidence of urban planning, such as the casemate city wall with houses that were built into the wall. A lack of pig bones, an ostracon identified as one of the earliest Hebrew inscriptions ever discovered, and cultic shrines absent of any images of people or animals have been used to identify Khirbet Qeiyafa as an Israelite fortress, rather than a Philistine outpost. Two large structures were identified as royal public buildings: one was a palatial residence, the other a storehouse.9 It is estimated that 100,000 tons of stone were used to build the city, which would have required a significant central government to oversee such a construction project.10 It is likely far beyond what a tribal chieftain could have constructed.11

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Kings Of Israel And Judah

According to the Tanakh, upon being chosen and becoming king, one was customarily anointed with holy oil poured on one’s head. In David’s case, this was done by the prophetSamuel.

Initially, David was king over the Tribe of Judah only and ruled from Hebron, but after seven and a half years, the other Israelite tribes, who found themselves leaderless after the death of Ish-bosheth, chose him to be their king as well.

All subsequent kings in both the ancient first united Kingdom of Israel and the later Kingdom of Judah claimed direct descent from King David to validate their claim to the throne in order to rule over the Israelite tribes.

After the death of David’s son, King Solomon, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel rejected the Davidic line, refusing to accept Solomon’s son, Rehoboam, and instead chose as king Jeroboam and formed the northern Kingdom of Israel. This kingdom was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE which exiled much of the Northern Kingdom population and ended its sovereign status. The bulk population of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was forced to relocate to Mesopotamia and mostly disappeared from history as The Ten Lost Tribes or intermixed with exiled Judean populations two centuries later, while the remaining Israelite peoples in Samaria highlands have become known as Samaritans during the classic era and to modern times.

Fast Facts: King David

  • Known For: After Saul, David was the second king of the Israelite kingdom.
  • Born: c. 1000 BCE in Bethlehem, Israel
  • Parents: Jesse and Nitzevet
  • Died: Unknown
  • Spouse: Michal, Ahinoam, Abigail, Maachah, Haggith, Abital, Eglah, Bathsheba
  • Children: Amnon, Chileab, Absalom, Adonijah, Shephatiah, Ithream, Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon, Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, Eliphalet, Tamar

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What Did David Achieve

As Israels second king, David built a small empire. He conquered Jerusalem, which he made Israels political and religious centre. He defeated the Philistines so thoroughly that they never seriously threatened the Israelites security again, and he annexed the coastal region. He went on to become the overlord of many small kingdoms bordering Israel.

David, , second king of ancient Israel. He founded the Judaean dynasty and united all the tribes of Israel under a single monarch. His son Solomon expanded the empire that David built. David is an important figure in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

David Plotted To Have Uriah Killed

Profile of King David From the Old Testament

David killed a lot of people in battle. He killed a lot of prisoners after battles. And he executed plenty of criminals. But one killing in particular displeased the Lord . When David couldnt get Uriah to sleep with his wife Bathsheba , he plotted to have Uriah killed in combat.

In the morning David wrote a letter to Joab and sent it with Uriah. In it he wrote, Put Uriah out in front where the fighting is fiercest. Then withdraw from him so he will be struck down and die.

So while Joab had the city under siege, he put Uriah at a place where he knew the strongest defenders were. When the men of the city came out and fought against Joab, some of the men in Davids army fell moreover, Uriah the Hittite died. 2 Samuel 11:14-17

In order to have Uriah killed in battle, Joab had to sacrifice some of Davids other men, and Joab feared David would be angry for the waste . But David was rather indifferent. He told Joabs messenger:

Say this to Joab: Dont let this upset you the sword devours one as well as another. Press the attack against the city and destroy it. Say this to encourage Joab. 2 Samuel 11:25

The lives of Gods people were simply collateral damage in Davids effort to cover up his sin.

Once Uriah was dead and Bathsheba had time to mourn him, David married her, and she gave birth to a son.

David committed a grave sin. But after his encounter with Nathan, David wrote Psalm 51, which reflects his humility and sincere repentance for what hed done.

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Children Must Make Their Own Choices

No matter how active we are in our children’s lives, our children grow up and must one day choose for themselves whether they will serve the Lord or go their own way. Some of David’s children did many did not. This trend continued through the succession of Israel’s kings.

Solomon wrote in the Proverbs to “start a youth out on his way even when he grows old he will not depart from it,” and for God-seeking parents, this is always the goal . However, no matter how faithful or righteous David may have been, David’s children and descendants were responsible for their actions and accountable to God for their choices, not David’s

As the prophet Ezekiel wrote, “the soul who sins shall die. The son shall not suffer for the iniquity of the father, nor the father suffer for the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon himself” .

Story Highlights Of King Saul In The Bible

Claim to fame: Saul was anointed by Samuel as the first king of the united kingdom of Israel.

Worst betrayal: King Saul turned against the Lord, slaughtering priests, and trying to kill David.

Sauls Family Tree

  • Tribe and Clan: Benjamin and Matrites
  • Father: Kish
  • Wife: Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz
  • Sons and Daughters: Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua, Ish-bosheth . Merab and Michal
  • Grandson and Great Grandson: Mephibosheth, son of Jonathan . Micah, son of Mephibosheth .

Plus

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He Asked God For Wisdom

Jews and Christians alike often regard Solomon as the wisest man who ever lived. According to the Bible, Solomons wisdom came directly from God. At the beginning of the narrative about Solomon, we learn that God appeared to him and said, Ask for whatever you want me to give you .

Solomon asked for wisdom and knowledge, so he could better govern Gods people . As a result, God basically gave him the jackpot of divine gifts:

Since this is your hearts desire and you have not asked for wealth, possessions or honor, nor for the death of your enemies, and since you have not asked for a long life but for wisdom and knowledge to govern my people over whom I have made you king, therefore wisdom and knowledge will be given you. And I will also give you wealth, possessions and honor, such as no king who was before you ever had and none after you will have. 2 Chronicles 1:1112

In time, Solomons wisdom became known throughout the region, and as his reputation grew, other rulers came to question and learn from him:

King Solomon was greater in riches and wisdom than all the other kings of the earth. All the kings of the earth sought audience with Solomon to hear the wisdom God had put in his heart. 2 Chronicles 9:2223

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